Report of the Working Group to
Review Teachers' Training
Programme (In the Light of the Need
for Value - Orientation 1983)

The Working Group to Review Teachers's Training Programme (in the Light of the Need for Value - Orientation) was constituted by the Government of India on 23 May 1981 under the Chairmanship of Shri Kireet Joshi.  The Committee was appointed to review the teacher training programmes with a view to promoting value education.  The terms of reference of the working group included:

(a) Suggesting the necessary changes in the present content and scope of value-orientation in education with special reference to the need to ensure development and promotion among students and teachers not only of the highest values of physical, emotional, mental, aesthetic, moral and spiritual culture but also of those values which are uniquely Indian, and which would promote secularism, pride in heritage and composite culture;
(b) Suggestion a programme of the study of the national freedom struggle;

(c) Suggesting the curriculum content for teacher trainees to achieve the desired value-orientation;
(d) Suggesting special techniques of pedagogy for training in value-orientation;
(e) Suggesting strategies for reorienting serving teachers through in-service programmes;
(f) Suggesting ways of promoting participation of voluntary organisations in organising training courses for teachers;
(g) Assessing dimensions of effort required as also to indicate the extent of governmental inputs;
(h) Making suggestions which would be relevant to the determination of the new roles of teachers as counsellors and guides instead of as mere lecturers and;
(i) Determining the important tasks that teachers will need to undertake towards preparing new educational materials keeping in view the challenges of our time.

A new working model for teachers' training institutes which would train teachers in their new roles by means of first-hand experience of new methods of teaching, learning was proposed.  This model envisaged a new system of evaluation which recommends not only written tests but oral tests and submission by the teacher trainee of a project which would give an account of his pursuit of the knowledge of subjects of his specialisation as also any special tasks performed in respect of the general attainments of the development of personality and dedication to serious thought and to high ideals and values.

The working group has proposed a new programme of studies related to India and Indian values.  This programme is divided into three parts.  The first part provides for a rapid view of Indian history, laying special emphasis on the study of great leaders of philosophy, science, religion, spirituality and arts as also of courage and heroism.  It also provides for a detailed study of the story of the freedom struggle as also of the achievements and problems of contemporary.   The second part is devoted to 'Achievements of Indian Culture' and it provides for a general acquaintance with Indian religion and spirituality, Indian literature, Indian art, including folk dances as also Indian arts and crafts, Indian philosophy and science, Indian festivals, Indian sports and games and the theme of heroism in Indian culture.   It lays a special emphasis on the study of the theme of perennial India.  The third part provides for study of one of the important themes from among several proposed themes that the student might like to study in depth.  The proposed themes include: 'Unity and Diversity of India', 'Secularism, Tolerance and Synthesis in Indian Culture', 'Remedy of India's Social Evils', and 'India and New Paths of Progress.'

It also discusses the strategy by which the present situation can be changed.

(1) The curriculum relating to value-education and to the study of Indian culture, recommended in this report should be immediately implemented in all the teachers' training institutions.
(2) Till the training institutions are remodelled on new lines as suggested in the report, an interim measure is recommended under which the teachers' training institution should offer three new papers related to (1) and (2) philosophy and psychology of value-oriented education and (3) India and Indian values, as optional papers in place of any other three papers which are at present prescribed in the teachers' training programmes.  In addition, teachers' training institutions may be recommended to incorporate in their total programme of teachers' education as many elements as possible from amongst all the various suggestions that have been made in this report in regard to value-orientation.
(3) Simultaneously, efforts should be initiated, without delay, to introduce two streams of teacher training programme: (i) five-year teacher education programmes, after Senior Secondary, leading to a master's degree in education  and (ii) two-year teacher education programme, after the first three-year graduation of five-year post-graduation, leading to a master's degree in education.  These programmes would be designed on the basis of the pedagogical ideas and value-oriented curricula suggested in this report.
(4) A provision may also be made on an optional basis for the two-year teacher training programme in such a way that a teacher trainee could complete the full programme in two phases, the first phase being of one-year duration, and the second phase of not more than five-year duration during which the second-year programme could be covered through summer courses or other short-term courses.  Those who have completed the first year programme could have the possibility of appointment as teachers on probation.
(5) Pioneering and pace-setting value-oriented institutions should be established, preferably one in each State, which should be utilised as centres for training teachers on the basis of the new ideas and values recommended in the report.
(6) A few national institutes of teacher education should be designed and established, especially to educate the staff of the colleges of teacher education in India.
(7) An All-India Public Examination for the evaluation of teacher trainees should be instituted, which would have novel features such as the combination of the written test with oral test and submission of a project report, all of which would have a special thrust towards the promotion of excellence, value-education and a sound acquaintance with India and Indian values.
(8) Measures should be taken to eliminate various evils and deficiencies which are growing alarmingly in teachers' training institutions.
(9) The above recommendations can be effectively implemented if a further proposal is implemented.  The proposal is that the Central Government should, by the exercise of its powers under concurrency, create a national organisation which would have the following objectives:

(a) To keep under review the institutions and programmes of teacher education in  the country at all levels and to maintain high standards of teaching, research and examination in the field of teacher education with a view to developing attitudes, skills and personality which would reflect the image of the teacher embodied in this report.
(b) To establish and to maintain (i) an Institute of Teacher Education, designed especially to educate the staff of the colleges of teacher education in India; and (ii) pace-setting model institutions of teacher education, preferably one in each State which should be utilised as centres for training and radiating new ideas and values in the region.
(c) To provide aid, financial, material and human, and advice necessary for coordination and maintenance of high standards of teaching, examination and research and to stimulate thinking on problems of teacher education.
(d) To function as an accrediting authority with powers to recognise or derecognise teacher training institutions and degrees awarded by them.
(e) To conceive of and implement programmes of strategies for bringing the existing teacher education institutions to conform to the aims and objects laid down by the Council.
(f) To organise the preparation and publication of a variety of resource material, including material for audio-visual aids and use of educational technology necessary for promoting high standards of work in teacher training institutions.
(g) To organise or support seminars, conferences, symposia as also to set up committees and panels for the promotion of the objectives, functions and activities of the Council.
(h) To perform such other functions as may be conducive to the realisation of the aims and objectives of teacher education visualised by the Council on the lines recommended in this report.

The Government of India should undertake legislation under its powers of concurrency to create the proposed organisation.  The proposed national organisation should be fully financed by the Central Government to enable it to discharge its functions and to provide financial aid to teacher education institutions.

The proposed national organisation should be in charge of implementing the value-oriented programmes of teachers' training.  The first step in implementation will be to prepare the educators of teacher-educators.   For this purpose, selection should be made from among those candidates who are willing and competent to undertake special programmes of training.  The trained educators should have the possibility of being appointed in the pace-setting value-oriented institutions as also in other institutions of teachers' education.

The value-oriented programmes that we have suggested in this report should be fully implemented in the pace-setting value-oriented institutes which, we envisage, will be established by the proposed national organisation.  In these institutions, we recommend two streams.  In the first stream, there will be admitted those candidates who are willing to pursue the value-oriented teachers' training programme in its fullness over a period of five years leading to a master's degree, after +2 stage of the 10+2+3 structure.  In the second stream, there will be those who wish to have two-year specialised training at these pioneering institutions after successful completion of their three-year degree course or after completion of a master's degree course in any discipline, or after having qualified themselves for admission in an entrance examination conducted by the proposed national organisation.  We also recommend that some facilities should be provided as far as possible in other teacher training institutions also.

It further recommended that a two year teacher education programme may be provided on an optional basis in such a way that the candidate has a possibility of completing the course in two phases, the first of a one year duration in the institution and the second year's course may be completed over a maximum period of five years through several summer or other short courses to be organised specially for this purpose by the institution concerned.  The teachers who complete the first year's course may be permitted to teach in a  secondary school as probationary teachers and will be confirmed only on completion of the second year's course.

Challenge of Education:
A Policy Perspective 1985

This document represents an important stage in the process of reviewing and reshaping the education system to enable it to meet the challenges of the future and also improve its efficiency and quality.  This document contains an overview of the state of education and pointers to the direction of future initiatives based essentially on the views and suggestions from educational planners, teachers, students, parents, intellectuals and citizens interested in education.

Teacher and Teacher Education

Teacher performance is the most crucial input in the field of education.  Whatever policies may be laid down, in the ultimate analysis these have to be interpreted and implemented by teachers, as much through their personal example as through the teaching-learning processes.  We are on the threshold of the development of new technologies likely to revolutionize teaching in classrooms.  But unfortunately, the process of updating curricula of teacher education has been very slow.   Much of teacher education is irrelevant even to contemporary requirements, leave alone those of the future.  The selection procedures and recruitment systems for teachers have also not kept pace with the needs in terms of either number or of quality.   So much is expected of the teacher, yet teaching has become the last choice in the job market.  Therefore, we face a paradox of having better books and research but progressively more indifferent teachers.

Many teachers never get an opportunity to go to a summer course or an orientation programme and the few who get this chance find that the unimaginative one-way teaching routine they themselves follow with their students is adopted with them also.

Teacher Training

In the case of teachers' training, the problem is not of equity or access but of the relatively low standard of candidates considering the role assigned to education and the crucial position of teachers in it, it is necessary that recruitment to teacher training institutions should be regulated through stringent aptitude and attainment tests, giving special consideration to service students, sportsmen and people with manual dexterity and wider interests.

There is general acceptance regarding the need for reform of pre-service teacher training arrangements and also an increasing realization regarding in-service training or continuing education of the teaching community.  The teacher today faces many challenges, emanating from expanding horizons of knowledge as well as other forces impinging upon the consciousness of the pupils, parental attitudes and their values, social interaction, playmates, etc. have at all time influenced the students.  Radio, television and films nowadays distort the process of education and make the task of the teacher much more difficult, while this requires a fresh evaluation of orientation of the media, it also calls for effective and recurrent programmes of in-service teacher education.

National Curriculum for Primary
and Secondary Education:
A Framework 1985

Teacher as Producer of Learning Resource

Teacher with short training can prepare the materials from the waste and locally available low-cost materials.  Several projects, initiated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training for the training of pre-primary and lower primary school teachers, have proved to be very popular and the demand for such training has been increasing very fast.  Training modules of this type should be instiutionalised in the pre-induction and continuing education of primary school teachers and non-formal instructors.

Professional Support for Teacher Development

Teacher training institutions generally lay emphasis on the subject matter competencies of the trainees prior to their entry in the professional course.  The lack of real integration of the method of teaching with the content of the subject has still remained a major weakness in pre-service training.  It is necessary to encourage innovations in designing teacher education curriculum.  The methodology of in-service training of teachers has gained increasing inputs in view of the urgent need to recognise massive re-orientation programmes for school teachers, both at the secondary and primary levels in order to introduce new curriculum objectives, content areas, and methods of evaluation.  The All India Summer Institute Programme for school teachers, introduced in India in the late 60s and the early 70s and the Computer Literacy and Studies in School Project, launched in 1984 (under which several thousand school teachers received in-service training for periods ranging from 3 to 6 weeks) deserve special attention.

Several agencies such as National Institute of Educational, Planning and Administration, Central Institute of English and Foreign Languages, Kendriya Hindi Sansthan, Regional Institute of Education, Technical Teacher Training Institutes, State Councils of Educational Research and Training, State Institutes of Education, Boards of Secondary Education, Departments of Education of the universities, Centres of Continuing Education at district level are engaged in planning and extending in-service programmes.  State Councils of Educational Research and Training/State Institutes of Education should involve teacher training institutions, general colleges, high school teachers and supervisory staff of the Departments of Education. There should be provision for less formalised, school-based in-service education of teachers as well. Facilities also have to be provided for self-education namely good libraries, journals, hand books, and resource materials.  Availability and continuous strengthening of these facilities would be a big step towards in-service education of the teachers.  Orientation of teacher educators, and administrators would be a part of the inservice education programme.  Relevance of the inservice programmes to the work expected from the teachers by headmasters community and even from the examination system, on the one hand, and facilities available to the teachers, on the other have to be constantly kept in mind.  Planners and administrators should do the total job of relating various aspects.

Monitoring and Evaluation

Monitoring and evaluation of in-service education, like any other programme should be a part of the total programme.  Continued feedback on activities planned and undertaken, materials produced and extended, functioning of the agencies involved, number of teachers oriented, should be utilised to correct, replan or redesign the modalities.  Performance of the teachers also need to be evaluated frequently.

National Policy on Education 1986

The Government of India announced in January 1985 that a New Education Policy would be formulated for the country.  A comprehensive appraisal of the existing educational scene was made, followed by a countrywide debate.   The views and suggestions received from different quarters were carefully studied.   The National Policy on Education - 1986 gave its recommendations on 23 various aspects of education - elementary education, secondary education, adult education, higher education, technical and management education, media and education technology teacher and their training, evaluation process, research and development etc.

Major Recommendation:
Teacher Education

Teacher education is a continuous process, and its pre-service and in-service components are inseparable.  As the first step, the system of teacher education will be overhauled.

The new programmes of teacher education will emphasise continuing education and the need for teachers to meet the thrusts envisaged in this Policy.

District Institutes of Education and Training will be established with the capability to organise pre-service and in-service cources for elementary school teachers and for the personnel working in non-formal and adult education.  As District Institutes of Education and Training get established, sub-standard institutions will be phased out.  Selected Secondary Teacher Training Colleges will be upgraded to complement the work of State Councils of Educational Research and Training. The National Council for Teacher Education will be provided the necessary resources and capability to accredit institutions of teacher education and provide guidance regarding curricula and methods.  Networking arrangements will be created between institutions of teacher education and university departments of education.

Programme of Action: NPE 1986

The Parliament discussed the "National Policy on Education 1986".  A promise was made at that time by the Ministry of Human Resource Development that it would present a programme of action for the implementations of the Policy.  In the first place, 23 task forces were constituted and each was assigned a specific subject covered by the National Policy on Education.  Eminent educationists, experts and senior representatives of Central and State Governments were associated with these task forces.  The task forces were requested to examine the present situation in  respect of the subject assigned to them and to elaborate the implications of the specific statements contained in the National Policy on Education.   The task forces were expected to project the actions that would be necessary and indicate the broad targets and the phasing of programmes.  The task forces accomplished their work and submitted their report in July 1986.  Discussions were held and suggestions were presented to the Parliament.  The Programme of Action means actions which will be needed in order to implement the directions of the policy.

The Plan of Action indicated the following action:

Reorganisation of Elementary Teacher Education

The National Council for Teacher Education will be given the statutory status and necessary resources to play its role.  An important change in the educational system will be brought by the radical transformation of the present system of elementary teacher education.  The functions of an elementary teacher education would include:

(a) Pre-service and in-service education of teachers for the formal school system.
(b) Induction level and continuing education of non-formal and adult education instructors and supervisors.
(c) Training and orientation of heads of institutions in institutional planning and management and micro level planning.
(d) Orientation of community leaders, functionaries of voluntary organisations and others influencing school level education.
(e) Academic support to school complexes and District Boards of Education.
(f) Action research and experimentation work.
(g) Serving as evaluation centres for primary and upper primary schools as well as non-formal and adult education programmes.
(h) Provision of services of a resource and learning centre for teachers and instructors.
(i) Consultancy and advice, for example, to District Boards of Education.

Each State Government will set up immediately a Task Force for making an assessment of the number of institutions of this nature required in the State keeping in view the relevant Programmes of Action.  The Task Force will also identify the existing institutions which can be developed as District Institutes of Education and Training.  As District Institutes of Education and Training get established, sub-standard institutions would be phased out.

A District Institute of Education and Training will perform all the functions mentioned in the preceding paragraph.  The Head of a District Institute of Education and Training would be of high status and be a person with a background in elementary education.  Special selection procedures will be established to ensure that ablest persons are selected, given higher scales of pay and are reoriented in cooperation with National Council of Educational Research and Training, National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration, State Councils of Educational Research and Training, University Departments of Education, some outstanding teachers' etc.   The Non-Formal Education/Adult Education District Resource Units would be an integral part of the District Institute of Education and Training for which additional faculty will be provided.  On this programme, Central Government will meet a major share in funding.

Facilities of latest technology such as computer-based learning system, Video Cassette Recorder, Television etc. will be provided to District Institute of Education and Training.  The teachers receiving training at District Institute of Education and Training would be encouraged to develop their own programmes using the facilities available at District Institute of Education and Training and to use these materials as instructional resources.  Capability for making copies of video cassettes, audio cassettes, etc. would also be provided in these institutes, besides imaginative use of traditional teaching aids would be empahsised and teachers encouraged to improvise their own instructional materials.

Secondary Teacher Education

The responsibility for secondary teacher education would continue to rest with colleges of teacher education affiliated to universities.  The university will in co-operation with National Council for Teacher Education exercise responsibility for academic aspects including conduct of examinations, award of degrees and ensuring quality of secondary teacher education institutions.  These institutions would also be responsible for continuing education programmes for secondary school teachers.  Some colleges of teacher education will be developed as comprehensive institutions organising programmes for primary teacher education and possibly also, four years' integrated courses after higher secondary stage, in addition to the usual B.Ed./M.Ed. courses.  The comprehensive institutions would also be provided facilities and staff for undertaking research and to supplement the efforts of State Councils of Educational Research and Training.  In order to promote innovations and experimentation, good colleges and departments of education of universities will also be given autonomous status.

In-service Education of Teachers

A great deal of responsibility would be given to State Councils of Educational Research and Training.  They would have the major role of planning, sponsoring, monitoring and evaluating the in-service education programme for all levels of teachers, instructors and other educational personnel.  The needs for in-service education of teachers arise from several sources, such as, changing national goals, revision of school curricula, additional inputs in teaching-learning system, inadequate background of teachers, etc.   The state level agency would take organizance of all the needs before preparing a programme of in-service education for a given period of time.

State Councils of Educational Research and Training would also prepare suitable material for in-service education of teachers, undertake orientation of key persons, monitoring and evaluation of programmes.  Similar steps for training of teachers in vocational stream should also be taken by State Councils of Educational Research and Training.

The District Institute of Education and Training for the primary level would be the major agency to conduct the programmes of in-service education for primary teachers; assistance would be sought from school complexes in the district.   In case of secondary school teachers, the programmes would be extended through teacher training institutions and the centres for continuing education.  The district level education officer will help in effective conduct of the programmes.

All in-service education programmes cannot be organised in face-to-face modality, especial in view of the numbers involved.  Distance in-service education materials will be prepared and extended with the help of broadcasting agencies. State Council of Educational Research and Training would be equipped with necessary resources for production of learning material other than print.  Minimum essential equipments to record audio, video programmes would be provided to each State Council of Educational Research and Training.  The comprehensive colleges of education as well as District Institutes of Education and Training would also be provided production facilities in a phased manner.  The production facilities at District Institutes of Education and Training and the colleges may not be of professional quality which would produce material which can be used in its own training programmes and can also be shared by other sister organisations.  Experiences especially those of voluntary organisations should be drawn upon in designing courses, development of material and strategies for in-service education.

Cadre of Teacher Educators

A separate cadre will be created for appointment of staff in State Council of Educational Research and Training, Secondary Teacher Education Institutions and District Institutes of Education and Training.  Persons selected to this cadre will receive incentives such as housing and placement in a higher scale of pay.   Special arrangements will be made to ensure continuing education of these persons.   An inter-change will also be organised between teaching and teacher education.   Sufficient number of supernumerary/reserve positions will be created in schools to enable people from this cadre to go as teachers for 1-2 years every 4-5 years.

National Council for Teacher Education

National Council for Teacher Education has been in existence since 1973 but it has not been able to guide the system of teacher education to meet emerging challenges.  Some of the difficulties are inherent in its constitution. To remedy this, it will be conferred autonomous and statutory status.

It would perform the following functions:

(a) Accreditation/Disaccreditation of institutions of teacher education.
(b) Laying down of standards and norms for institutions of teacher education.
(c) Development of guidelines for curricula and methods of teacher education.
(d) Other functions like earning of credits for in-service education, duration of various courses, emphasis to be laid on training programmes for Non-Formal Education/Adult Education instructors, place of correspondence education in teacher education etc.

Some other functions like preparation of learning materials, orientation of senior teacher educators etc. may continue to be performed by National Council of Educational Research and Training, State Councils of Educational Research and Training, in co-operation with National Council for Teacher Education.

The curriculum for teachers' training needs to be revised in the light of the new policy thrusts.  In particular, there should be an emphasis on integration of education and culture, work experience, physical education and sports, the study of Indian Culture and the problems of the unity and integration of India.   Planning and Management are emerging areas and curriculum should bring out the importance of these areas.  Educational technology will influence not only methodologies of teaching-learning process but also the content and their design.   These aspects should be taken into account while framing the curriculum.

There is too much emphasis in textbooks on western ideas, and teachers under training do not get exposed adequately to Indian philosophical and psychological concepts of education.  Therefore, National Council of Educational Research and Training and University Grants Commission should undertake the task of preparing new learning materials, which would include textbooks, reference books, anthologies, slides, films etc., and which will reflect the Indian experience in education.

Teachers and Their Training:
Present Situation

Traditionally teachers have enjoyed a position of great respect in our country.  The religious leaders and social reformers have been addressed as teachers of the people.  Hundreds of thousands of teachers are still held in esteem by their pupils and the community.  However, on the whole the status of teacher has diminished during the last five decades.  The reasons are deterioration in work, phenomenal expansion of the educational system, lowering of standards of teacher training, a general impression that a very large number of teachers do not perform their duty properly, changes in the value system in society etc.  The status of teachers has had a direct bearing on the quality of education, and many of the ills of the latter can be ascribed to the indifferent manner in which society has looked upon the teacher and the manner in which many teachers have performed their functions.

National Curriculum for Teacher Education 1988

Objectives of Teacher Education Programme
General Objectives of Pre-service Teacher
Education Programmes

The teacher education programme at all levels should seek to develop in the prospective teacher:

1. Knowledge and understanding of:

2. Professional competencies and skills relating for:

3. Social commitment through participation in:

4. Positive attitudes towards children, learning, school, professional growth and manual work.

5. Social, cultural and moral values oriented towards the unity and integration of our people.

6. Aesthetic contests and appreciation, literary, cultural and artistic pursuits.

Pre-service Teacher Education Curriculum Designs
Some basic principles and considerations

The basic principles and considerations common to teacher education programmes at all stages are as follows:

In-service and continuing education of teachers

The pre-service and the in-service teacher education programmes should be viewed, planned and executed as two essential constituents of a single integral system, neither being complete without the other.  The In-service Education and Training visualizes continuous professional growth of teachers.  It follows   a full fledged face to face regular pre-service education, which enables a person to enter a teaching career.  The In-Service Education and Training reinforces the perspective education programme and thus is not a substitute for pre-service initiation.

As a measure for improvement and reform in our school education, the In-Service Education and Training should take the form of a movement, in which all teachers, teacher educators and administrators should enthusiastically participate.  It should be an activity which the teachers enjoy and look forward to.

The in-service education of teachers should have its own distinct identity and theoretical framework and needs to be developed as a specialised field of study in education.  it should continuously develop with inputs from research - both fundamental and applied - covering its management and delivery system, its impact on teacher growth and pupil learning, its effect on and relationship with pre-service teacher education, its methodologies and such other relevant aspects.

It will be worthwhile if undergoing in-service courses becomes a part of the service conditions of a teacher.  As a beginning in this regard it is suggested that every teacher may be required to undergo a refresher course of four weeks' duration at least once in 5 years.

The Need for In-service Education

In-service education of teachers becomes all the more necessary in view of the advances in knowledge in the subject.  Teachers have to acquaint themselves with such new developments.  Besides there are experiments and innovations in the field of pedagogy which ought to be brought to the notice of the teachers, and if necessary required skills to adopt the innovative practices need to be developed.  Periodical adoption of new educational policies and consequent changes in the curricula and instructional materials also necessitate in-service education programme for teachers in order to enable them to handle the new material with ease and effectiveness.  A teacher can make his teaching more interesting and effective with help of teaching aids.  He needs to be trained and retrained periodically in the production and use of appropriate audio-visual aids.

In the pre-service teacher education programme a teacher might have studied a little bit about different kinds of deprivation.  In-service education programmes should further equip the teachers with necessary skills to handle children suffering from various kinds of deprivation.

In-service education brings into focus the desirability of a teacher to always remain a learner during his professional life, thus avoiding obsolescence, focalization and irrelevance.

National Curriculum for Elementary and
Secondary Education:
A Framework 1988

Professional Support for Pre-service and
In-service Training of Teachers

Generally, the teacher training institutions rely on the subject matter competencies of the trainees which they possessed prior to their entry in the professional course.  These training institutions as such are not equipped adequately to make up the deficiency in the pre-service training so far as the content knowledge of the trainee teacher is concerned.  The lack of real integration of the teaching has still remained a major weakness in pre-service training.  Therefore, it is necessary to encourage innovations in designing the teacher education curriculum.   Orientation of teacher educators and administrators should be a part of the in-service education programmes.

Reorientation of In-service

The introduction of new generations of instructional packages should be supported by training of teachers to facilitate the implementation of the National Curricular Framework, to better equip the teachers to handle the new generation of instructional packages and to acquaint them with innovative practices related to teaching-learning and evaluation process of school stage.  Special training programmes should be organised for science, mathematics, work experience, art education, and health and physical education.

Establishing/Strengthening/Upgrading of
Teacher Training Institutions

To strengthen the training of teachers, District Institutes of Education and Training were proposed to be set up in a phased manner.  For improving the quality of pre-service teacher training programme for secondary level, the colleges of education should be strengthened.  A few secondary teacher training colleges should be developed as Institutions of Advanced Studies in Education.  These institutions should have networking with the university departments of education, State Councils of Educational Research and Training, District Institutes of Education and Training , Regional Colleges of Education of National Council of Educational Research and Training.  In order to enhance professional capabilities for training of in-service teachers State Councils of Educational Research and Training in States/Union Territories should be reorganised and strengthened.

Monitoring and Evaluation of Teacher
Training Programme

Monitoring and Evaluation of in-service education, like any other programme, should be a part of the total programme.  Continued feedback on activities planned and undertaken, materials produced and extended functioning of the agencies involved and number of teachers oriented should be utilised to correct, replan or redesign the modalities.  Performance of the teachers also needs to be evaluated frequently.

Networking of Technical Support Structure
for Teacher Training

Several agencies such as National Council of Educational Planning and Administration, Central Institute of English and Foreign Languages, Central Institute of Indian Language, Kendriya Hindi Sansthan, National Institute for Handicapped, Regional Institute of Education, and Technical Teacher's Training Institutes at regional level, State Councils of Educational Research and Training, State Institutes of Education, and Boards of Secondary Education, Departments of Education of the Universities, Colleges of Education at the state level, District Institutes of Education and Training and Centres of Continuing Education at the district level, are engaged in planning and extending in-service programmes.

A national agency, supported by state level counterparts, should continuously 'identify' the needs of in-service education, and recommend suitable modalities in designing teacher education programme.  Strategies planned by agencies at the national, state or even district level should meet the requirements of reorientation of teachers that arise out of changes in curricula.

Agencies besides being associated with teacher training in the areas of their concern, should develop national and regional curriculum development centres.  In order that curriculum development work carried out at different institutions can be coordinated and utilised for mutual advantage at different levels, it would be imperative to establish some coordinating mechanism for dissemination of curriculum and teacher development strategies developed by the different centres.

This will ultimately produce a network of institutions to provide professional support not only to curriculum development but also teacher education.

Committee for the Review of National Policy
on Education (1986): 1990

The Committee to review the National Policy on Education 1986, was formed on 7th November 1990 with Acharya Ramamurti as Chairman and sixteen others as members.  This Committee's report bears the title "Towards an Enlightened and Humane Society".  The Committee was appointed to review the National Policy on Education 1986 and make recommendation regarding the revision of the policy and action necessary for implementation of the revised policy within a time-frame.

Major Recommendations:
Removing Deficiencies

Selection of students should be regulated through stringent aptitude and attainment and not merely on university grade or mark.

The training programme should be competence-based and there should be an integration of theory and practice for situational application.

Affective aspects to be taken care of so as to develop in students the qualities such as empathy, attitude towards profession, society and develop values.

In-service and refreshers courses should be specified and related to the specific needs of teachers.  In-service programmes should take due care of the future needs of teacher's growth.  Evaluation and follow up should be part of the scheme.  Research should support better management including delivery system of the programme.

Development of innovative strategies and pilot trial of significant activities should be encouraged to ensure the effectiveness of the programme.   District Institutes of Education and Training should have the major responsibility for organising in-service courses for elementary school teachers.  A strong distance education system of in-service education should be developed using Television, Radio and print media.  It can be strengthened by occasional contact programmes.

All institutions should be strengthened with continuous supply of relevant learning material including journals.  Provision should be made for every teacher to attend in-service programmes according to the specific needs and requirements.

The first degree in teacher education should not be given through correspondence education.

Preparing Teachers for the New Thrusts

In the light of the new thrusts which the Committee is proposing for the education system, the teacher training would have to be totally revamped with a view to equip the teacher with the following attributes:

(a) Empathy and a social perception of the need profiles of children from different educationally backward sections of society.
(b) Understanding of the status of women in society and the need to introduce a gender perspective in all dimensions.
(c) Capability of imparting education in all aspects of cognitive and affective domains as well as psychomotor skills.
(d) Aptitude for innovative and creative work.
(e) Perception of the interventionist role of education in a stratified society and the ability to give operational meaning to this role.
(f) Preparedness for vocationalisation of entire educational process and aptitude for integration of work in academic learning.
(g) Ability in special areas such as pre-school education, education for the handicapped children, continuous and comprehensive evaluation, activity based learning, scientific methods of acquiring knowledge etc.
(h) A sensitive understanding of her/his role in a decentralized and participatory mode of educational management.

The new thrusts towards Universalisation of Elementary Education would require the teacher of the elementary stage to be trained in the following concepts, methods and skills.

Internship Model of Teacher Training

The internship model is firmly based on the primary value of actual field experience in a realistic situation, on the development of teaching skills by practice over a period of time, on supervised teaching under the guidance of more experienced and skilled persons, on role modelling as a time tested pedagogical principle.   It is 'inductive' because it expects to draw theoretical insight after exposure to a range of personal experiences and observations.  A deductive model first gives instruction in basic principle in an abstract manner, and expects the student to apply the principle to real life situation later on.

To make a success of the internship model of training the following are required:

Training High School Teachers

The new National Council for Teacher Education syllabus for B.Ed. courses should be circulated to all Teacher Training Institutions and State/Union Territory Governments for detailed comments before the matter is finalised.  The Committee considered the integrated model of teacher education which has been practiced by the four Regional Colleges of Education.  In the model, following class XII, trainee is given a four year course integrating subject and methodology.  At the end a B.Sc. B.Ed. degree is awarded.  The Committee observed that this model provides the necessary professional touch to the training and therefore needs to be encouraged.

Preparing Teacher Educators for Leadership Role

The Committee notes the following situation with concern:

(a) Educational objectives and strategies are planned in isolation of those who have to implement them, i.e., teachers and teacher educators.   Consequently, they interpret the objectives and strategies according to their own perception and this can even result in action that may be diametrically opposite of what was intended.
(b) Teachers and teacher educators do not have any concrete role in policy implementation or its monitoring.  Their role is confined to doing what they are told.
(c) The teacher training institutions, irrespective of their level or status, are essentially service institutions, meeting the expectation of policy framers.

The teachers, teacher educators and the training institutions must be assigned a leadership, strategy formulation, implementation and monitoring role.   Unless this is done, the system is unlikely to respond to exhortations to change and serve the society.  They lack today the necessary motivation, aptitude and competence to assume the leadership role but this cannot be an excuse for not taking the first step forward in the right direction.  With appropriate inputs and mechanism for their growth, a process needs to be generated right away to ultimately place the responsibility where it legitimately belongs.  In this, the teacher educator would have a pivotal role.

The Committee presents the following profile of a teacher educator:

(a) ability to think and work with a sense of independence.
(b) ability to act against the prevalent or populist opinion.
(c) ability to convince and catalyze people.
(d) ability to lead both by precept and practice.
(e) ability for creative and sustained action.
(f) ability to mobilize resources, both human and financial, from within and outside the community
(g) ability to work with different segments of society, including the Government.
(h) A high  motivation for need achievement which will include:

(a) a desire to achieve.
(b) ability to work even when demotivating factors are present.
(c) a willingness to accept responsibility and feed accountable.
(d) high inter-personal skills.

In order to develop such a teacher educator, a special programme of education, having the necessary status and resources would have to be developed.  The programme would give adequate weightage to cognitive, affective and operational components of the role expected of a teacher educator.  Institutions running these programmes must play an active role in educational policy making, planning, implementation and monitoring from the very beginning, thereby also providing a field situation in which the trainees of a teacher educator programme would receive training.

Continuing Teacher Education

The proposed educational complex may be given the responsibility for co-ordinating and organising in-service teacher training programmes for the teachers in the area of its coverage.  In particular, the complex can provide an effective channel of communication between the school and District Institute of Education and Training.

Miscellaneous Issues

The practice of using teacher training institutions as a dumping ground for unwanted or troublesome persons should be stopped forthwith.   Instead, competent persons may be brought into these institutions from schools and other Government institutions on a rotational basis.

The continuation of a teacher may be linked with the completion by her/him of the requirement of updating her/his knowledge from time to time.

In a national workshop held by National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration (Dec. 1989) a detailed articulation was made that - all necessary administrative and financial powers be vested with the Head of the institution (i.e. primary/middle/high schools) so that she/he may function with autonomy to fulfil the assigned role.

District Institutes of Education and Training

The State Governments must ensure full autonomy to District Institutes of Education and Training for embarking upon programme of research and training so that these are to play their expected role in bringing about quality improvement and reform.

In view of the new thrusts given by this Committee to education, District Institutes of Education and Training would have to undertake fresh responsibilities and develop competence in the respective areas as enumerated below:

(a) Universalization of Elementary Education:
(b) Early Childhood Care and Education;
(c) Women's education with emphasis on giving a gender perspective to the entire educational process;
(d) Education for promoting equity and social justice among Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes and other educationally backward sections of society, including minorities;
(e) Vocationalisation of the entire educational process;
(f) Examination reforms, modularisation, multiple entry and exist points.

Status of Implementation of the Centrally
Sponsored Schemes of Teacher Education

Emergent steps should be taken for getting completed all the phases in teacher education institutions for which financial assistance has been given by the Government of India.

Further financial assistance to States which have not so far completed the earlier phases of project implementation should be avoided - i.e. until physical progress is demonstrated in regard to funds given but not yet used.

As the faculty of the District Institutes of Education and Training is the most crucial element in the teacher education programme, emergent urgent attention may be given to the filling up of all the posts.  Recruitment rules or manning these points should also be got issued by the State Governments urgently.

Curriculum Development Centres in
Education 1990

The Curriculum Development Centres programmes was taken up by the University Grants Commission in order to promote excellence in teaching at undergraduate level and post graduate level.

Aims of the B.Ed./B.T./B.A. B.Ed. Course

The main objectives of education at present as given in the syllabus of the various universities are:

(i) To develop an awareness of the role of teacher in realising the objectives of school education.
(ii) To develop to teach at lest two school subjects on the basis of the accepted principles of learning and teaching.

(iii) To develop skill for continuously evaluating pupil growth.
(iv) To develop understanding, interest, attitudes and skills which would enable him to foster all-round growth and development of pupils under this care.
(v) To develop competence to act not only as a leader of the children but also as a guide of the community and as a liaison between the school and the community.

Minimum Entry Requirement

A Bachelor's degree is the minimum requirement for admission to the B.Ed./B.T. Courses.  Where the course is offered as a four year integrated Course (B.A. B.Ed. or B.Sc. B.Ed.) the entry requirement is eligibility for admission to undergraduate courses of the respective universities.

Nature and Duration of the B.Ed./B.T. Programme

The B.Ed. programme is offered as a regular course in all universities.  In a few universities the correspondence courses for B.Ed. is also conducted.  The duration of the course is one year in all the universities.   The Shivaji University offers B.A. B.Ed. Programme of four years duration.

Curriculum

The Course of study for B.Ed. Programme consist of two parts.

Part I: Theory
Part II: Practicals

Wide variation is seen is theory papers offered in different universities.  There to four core papers, 2 optional and one specialisation paper is the pattern commonly followed.

The practicals consist mainly of Teaching Practice, Practical work related to theory papers and other practical work.

Examination System

External and Internal examination system in theory is prevalent in almost all universities.  Some universities have internal assessment for theory papers also and in such cases the ratio between internal and external varies from 1:4 to 1:2.

Four models for B.Ed. Programmes are as follows:

Mode 1: B.Ed. 1 year

Core paper
Optional paper
Elective paper
Practice Teaching
Practical Work

Model 2: B.Ed. 1 year (Semester System)

1st semester              IInd Semester
Core paper
Optional paper
Practical

Model 3: B.Ed. 1 year and 5/6 months' Internship

Part 1: Theory
Core paper
Optional paper
Special paper

Part II: Teaching Practice and Internship
Model 4: B.Ed. (Basic) 1 Year

Theory: core paper
special paper
Practical:

Training of Teachers to Impart Education
According to Revised Curriculum

Teachers in college of education or here afterwards referred to as teacher-educators will have to play a key role in implementation of any teacher education programme.  The new curriculum suggested has enriched content and widened scope and hence orienting teacher-educators is essential for its effective implementation.

Two models are presented for organising orientation courses to orient teachers with new curriculum.

Model 1: empahsises on establishing the new agency for conducting these courses.
Model 2: emphasises on orientation by the national curriculum centre with the help of state and district resources.

Model 1

i) Establishment of one Central Institute of Teacher Education and one State Institute of Teacher Education in each State.
ii) The Central and State Institutes of Teacher Education will be be centres of excellence in teacher-education and will be provided with all facilities.  It would be better if these Institutes are developed completely as new institutions with all modern facilities rather than modifying present teacher-education institutions.  They should be modelled like National Institute of Banking Management, Pune, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay,  Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad or like Indian Institute of Technology.
iii) All the orientation courses will be mainly organised by these institutes supported by other teacher education institutes.
iv) Teacher educators attending course in these institutes will be given all financial assistance needed.
v) All modern methods of training will be used in these institutes like use of modern media - videotapes, computer programmes etc.
vi) Selective admission in these institutes will inspire teacher educators to work hard and completion of course in these institutes will also provide financial gains to teacher educators.
vii) Every teacher educator shall have to undergo at least one course in these Institutes within every five years of his service.
viii) These Institutes will offer variety of courses useful to teacher educators including orientation  for new curriculum.

Organising other Orientation Courses

The courses are to be organised at three level: (a) National level (b) State level (c) University level.

a) National level courses: These are meant for key personnel who will further work as resource persons, can be arranged at two three places in the country.
b) State level courses: For state level courses personnels who will further work as resource persons, can be arranged at two three places in a State.
c) University level courses: In each university there will be courses for: Principals/Heads; Teacher Educators.

It is suggested that four weeks' programmes may be organised for all core subjects to orient teacher educators for their new teaching strategies.  Two weeks orientation programme will be organised for elective and optional subjects for subject enrichment teaching strategies.

Resource Persons

Competent persons be appointed as resource persons for each subject.  A national and State level list of resource persons be prepared of each subject.  A competent resource persons is likely to inspire teacher educators.   The orientation courses will be workshop type and hence more emphasis should be given on activities on the part of the teacher educator rather than mere lecturing.

Model 2

The model provides 3 levels of orientation courses:

1. National level orientation programmes for state key resource persons (who will be the leader trainer for this new curriculum in his/her state at national curriculum centre).
2. State level orientation programme for principals/heads and teacher educators from each district (who  will be the leader trainer for this new curriculum in his/her district).
3. District level orientation programme for every teacher educator of that district.

(1) key Resource Persons should be oriented with the philosophy of new curriculum, with objectives, instructional technique, evaluation technique for theory papers.  Implementation of practice teaching and arranging practical work as well as the method of organizing internship programme.  The major emphasis should be on planning the practice programme.  The number of participants should be more than 20 in one programme.
The training should be arranged at the National Curriculum Development Centre, University of Kerala with the help of concerned members of Undergraduate Committee.  At least two persons in each state may be selected for this training who may act as the Key Resource Persons responsible for the training of all the teacher educators of that state.   These persons should also be given training in organizing training programmes in states.  The duration of this training may be from 10 day to 15 days.
(2) These trained Key Resource Persons will be made incharge of orientation programmes for this curriculum in their states.  They will prepare prepare a plan of training of all the teacher educators.  They will organize training for teacher educators in implementing new curriculum and will clarify his new role in training college.  Two teacher educators from each Institute will be selected for training in these phases.   In one course not more than 40  teachers will be trained.  The National Committee members will also be consulted by Key Resource Persons for making training programmes.
(3) In third phase, these orientation courses may be conducted at district level.   All the teacher educators working in training departments in that district will be attending the orientation programmes.  The principal and the lecturer trained at state level has to play the role of Trainer/Incharge for these District Training Programmes.  The duration of this programme may be 10-15 days.  Not more than 40 teachers will be oriented in one course.  The course will be operated till all the teacher educators of that district are oriented.
(4) In India there are about 360 colleges for preparing secondary teachers.  On an average if we put 15 teacher educators in one college, the number of teacher educators will not be more than 5400.

(a) we require two national level orientation programmes to train about 40 key resource persons.
(b) Two State level training courses.
(c) 130 district level training programmes.
(d) TA/DA and other expenditures should be met by either the State Government or University Grants Commission  for all these training programmes.  The textual material should be prepared and distributed in all the training courses.

After the new curriculum is accepted and implemented the members of the present Curriculum Committee should visit, inspect, supervise and suggest regarding the proper implementation of the curriculum in some randomly selected Training Colleges/University Departments in each State.  Their reports should be discussed at the National curriculum centre, and suitable measures may be adopted for improving the conditions.

The national curriculum centre should be made responsible for organising further refresher courses for the experienced and orientation courses for new teachers in the profession.  The national centre through which new trends, new tendencies, latest developments, recent advances and conclusion of researches on teacher education and curriculum will be communicated to the teacher educators occasionally.   This Bulletin will also help in professional development of the teacher educators.

National Council for Teacher Education
Committee for Teacher Education
Programme Through Distance
Education Mode 1990

A Committee for Teacher Education Programme Through Distance Education mode was appointed by National Council for Teacher Education under the Chairmanship of Prof. M.B. Buch in January 1989.  The Committee was appointed to review the present status of B.Ed. (Correspondence) courses, and to consider the specific issues raised by the Ministry of Human Resource Development with regard to correspondence courses and also to make specific recommendations on the distance education in teacher education for specific categories of teachers, such as untrained or under-qualified teachers who are already in job.

Major Recommendations:
Suggested Guidelines for B.Ed. Programmes
through Distance Education Mode

The duration of the programme should be 24 months.   The programme should have the following components:

(a) Professionally developed printed course material (revised every four years) sent through correspondence.
(b) Audio and video packages wherever possible to supplement the printed material.
(c) Regular assignments (compulsory) which is promptly evaluated and the feed-back provided.  There may be at least one assignment per course per semester i.e. four assignments for each of the seven courses.
(d) An internship of three weeks (compulsory) during which time the trainees are attached to regular schools for their practice teaching under supervision.
(e) Twelve weeks (72 days) of compulsory contact programmes for tutorials, lecturers by competent resource persons, counselling, listening to/viewing audio/video programmes, and for supervised practice teaching in simulation.  The contact programme may be organised as either (i) two compulsory summer schools of six weeks each or (ii)( seventy - two compulsory week-end tutorial sessions of 150 minutes each in study centres and two compulsory summer schools of three weeks each.
Note: Examination have to be conducted outside of these 72 days.

Admission should be on the basis of performance in  a valid entrance examination.

The number of students to be enrolled is to be pre-specified.

The entry qualifications for the B.Ed. (Distance Education) programmes should be the same as those for the B.Ed. programmes in the conventional mode.

The Staff structure should be as follows:

(a) Faculty: For every 500 students enrolled, there may be a ten strong full-time, Core-faculty and a ten strong part-time faculty in addition to external course-writers.  An institutions may, however, go for a greater proportion of part-time faculty based on a sound principle of full-time part-time equivalence.
(b) All technical assistance should be hired on contractual basis.
(c) Administrative and support staff may be of proportionate strength as per standard norms.

There should be strict parity in tuition fees maintained between the B.Ed. programmes offered through the conventional face-to-face mode and those offered through distance education mode.  In addition, charges for course material, and postage may be levied.

Financing distance education programmes for teacher training should be based on the same principles as those governing finance of regular programmes of higher education.  Public funds, and not tuition fees, should be the main source of finance.  The Committee worked out costing based on certain assumptions.

Central Advisory Board of Education
Committee on Distance Education 1992

The Central Board of Education Committee on Distance Education was appointed by the Government of India, under the Chairmanship of Shri G. Ram Reddy in 1992.  The Report of Central Advisory Board of Education Committee deals with concept, growth, objectives and status of distance education in India and examines the directions of growth and development of open learning and distance education system, measures for reorientation of correspondence courses into the distance education mode, role of India Gandhi National Open University in the promotion of open university system and use of electronic media and new communication technologies in distance learning.

Major Recommendations

The National Policy on Education Review Committee listed out a number of propositions which should inform content and process of teacher training programmes.  These propositions are an elaboration of the provision in National Policy on Education/Programme of Action and many of them built into the teacher education programmes.  The major recommendations are as follows:

(a) Theory and Practice should be integrated for situational applications.
(b) The training programme should promote qualities and values such as empathy, particularly to the girl child and children from educationally backward sections of society, and right attitude towards the profession and society.
(c) The teacher training programmes should cover concepts and methods relating to child-centered approach, multigrade teaching, continuous and comprehensive evaluation, development of content on the basis of minimum levels of learning, linkages with Early Childhood Care and Education and adoption of playway and activity based approach in primary education.
(d) In-service programme should be related to the specific needs of teachers and take care of the future needs of teacher growth, evaluation and follow up.
(e) Innovative strategies and pilot trial of significant activities should be encouraged.

First degree in teacher education should not be given through correspondence courses.

The National Council for Teacher Education should be immediately provided, as envisaged in the National Policy on Education/Programme of Action, with necessary resources and capability.

An expert body like the National Council for Teacher Education should study the internship model of teacher training, as suggested by the National Policy on Education Review Committee and guide the State Councils of Educational Research and Training and teacher education institutions.

Regarding National Policy on  Education Review Committee's recommendations on the syllabus for the B.Ed. courses National Council for Teacher Education may take necessary action in consultation with States/Union Territories.

The attributes of teacher education identified by the National Policy on Education Review Committee may be kept in mind by the National Council for Educational Research and Training while preparing special programme for teacher educators.

Training and management of in-service training programmes for elementary teachers should be the responsibility of the District Institutes of Education and Training only.

State Government should give emergent attention to fill up all the posts in the teacher training institutions and to frame recruitment rules for them.

Emergent steps should be taken for operationalising the teacher education institutions for which financial assistance was provided by the Government of India, further financial assistance should be denied to those States in which the physical progress and utilisation of funds are unsatisfactory.

Every District Institute of Education and Training   should be taken for operationalising the teacher education institutions for which financial assistance was provided by the Government of India, further financial assistance should be denied to those States in which the physical progress and utilisation of funds are unsatisfactory.

Every District Institutes of Education and Training should be a distinct identity with enough operational flexibility.

The State Governments and universities may take appropriate action on the recommendations of the National Policy on  Education Review Committee on students, taking into account the specific situations.

The National Policy on  Education Review Committee also offered suggestions regarding teacher welfare, teacher participation and teacher mobility.  The National Policy on Education also called upon the Government and the community to create conditions which will help motivate and inspire teachers on constructive and creative lines.  It also felt that pay scales and conditions of service of teachers should be commensurate with their social and professional responsibilities, and with the need to attract talent to the profession.  The National Policy on  Education Review Committee's suggestion regarding office room, residential quarters, medical facilities etc. have to be considered by the State Government in the light of their financial position and other commitments.  Regarding teacher participation to management, we consider that teachers will continue to play crucial role in formulation and implementation of the teacher education programmes.

National Policy on Education 1986
Programme of Action 1992

The Revised Policy Formulations which set forth the modifications to the National Policy on Education 1986, were placed before both houses of Parliament on 7th May 1992.  A Central Advisory Board of Education Committee on Policy was constituted to review the implementation of the various to parameters of National Policy on Education 1986, taking into consideration the report of the Committee for Review of National Policy on Education and other relevant developments since the policy was formulated.  The Janardhana Reddy Committee, in its report submitted in January 1992, came to the conclusion that while very little of the National Policy on Education 1986, required reformulation the Programme of Action needed to be revised considerably.  On 5-6th May 1992, the Central Advisory Board  of Education, the historic forum for forging a national consensus on educational issues, considered the Janardhana Reddy Committee Report and formulated the Revised Policy Formulations.  On 12th May 1992, the Minister of Human Resource Development gave an assurance to present a revised Programme of Action.

Teachers and their training: The present situation

Teacher performance is the most crucial input in the field of education.  Whatever policies may be laid down in the ultimate analysis these have to be interpreted and implemented by teachers, as much through their personal example as through teaching learning processes.  Teacher selection and training, competence, motivation and the conditions of work impinge directly on teachers' performance.  The National Policy on Education 1986 calls for a substantial improvement in the conditions of work and the quality of teacher's education.  The policy also emphasizes the teachers' accountability to the pupils, their parents, the community and to their own profession.  The revised policy formulations reiterate, without modification, the National Policy on Education 1986 postulates on teachers and teachers' education.  The Programme of Action 1986 spelt out the main aspects of the strategy for implementation of these postulates.  The Programme of Action 1986 prescription continues to be of relevance and needs to be acted upon with vigour and determination.

The area where significant advances were made since 1986 is teacher education.  A centrally sponsored scheme of Teacher Education was launched in 1987.  During the period 1986-89, 17.62 lakh teachers were covered under the scheme Mass Orientation of School Teachers.  Roughly 70% of the total teachers trained were primary and the remaining 30% were upper primary and secondary teachers.

The objectives of this scheme was to orient teachers in the main priorities and directions envisaged in the National Policy on Education 1986 and to improve their professional competence.  The orientation was done through 10 day camps mainly held during summer vacation.  The State Councils of Educational Research and Training organised these camps under the guidance and supervision of National Council of Educational Research and Training.  In 1989 a special training package was incorporated to impart training in use of Operation Blackboard material and in child centered education.

The Programme of Action 1986 envisaged setting up District Institutes of Education and Training to provide quality pre-service and in-service education to teachers and Adult Education, Non-formal Education personnel, to provide academic and resource support to elementary and adult education system and to engage in action research and innovation in these areas. By March 1992, 306 District institutes of Education and Training have been sanctioned, of these 162 are already conducting training programmes.

The Programme of Action also contemplated upgrading Secondary Teacher Education Institutions into Institutes of Advanced Study in Education, and strengthening Colleges of Teacher Education.  By the end of March 1992, 31 Colleges of Teacher Education and 12 Institutes of Advanced Study in Education have been sanctioned.

A scheme was drafted to provide one time matching grant of Rs. 15 lakh for strengthening each State Council of Educational Research and Training, however this level of grant found too inadequate and in consultation with the State Governments a scheme has been prepared for conferring independent and autonomous status to the State Councils of Educational Research and Training with responsibility to oversee District Institutes of Education and Training, District Resource Units and other Elementary Teacher Education Institutions.

The Programme of Action envisaged statutory and autonomous status being conferred on the National Council for Teacher Education.  For this purpose in consultation with national and state level organisations and other concerned agencies the details have been worked out.

The centrally sponsored scheme of teacher education was evaluated by Institutions such as National Council of Educational Research and Training, National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration, Lakshmi College of Education, Madras and Punjab University, Chandigarh while acknowledging the positive aspect of the scheme the evaluation reports suggested attention being paid to the following aspects:

(i) Adequacy of implementation machinery at the state level.
(ii) Effective personnel policy and prompt filling up of posts with competent persons.
(iii) Sufficient financial and administrative delegation to the principals.
(iv) Streaming flow of funds to institutions.
(v) Balance between pre-service training and in-service training.

Action Plan For Teacher Education

(a) Centrally sponsored Scheme of Teacher Education:

Keeping in view the desired goal of providing in-service training to all teachers at an interval of five years, the existing scheme of teacher education will be modified and continued.  While attempt will be made to provide maximum coverage through District Institutes of Education and Training/Colleges of Teacher Education/Institutes of Advanced Study in Education, special orientation programmes for teachers will also be launched and Teachers' Centres and School complexes will be tried out on pilot basis.  The emphasis in training programmes will be on training in the use of Operation Blackboard materials and orienting teachers towards Minimum Levels of Learning strategy with focus on teaching of language, mathematics and environmental studies.

In the District Institutes of Education and Training, all the districts in the country will be covered by the end of the Eighth Five Year Plan:   About 250 Colleges of Teacher Education/Institutes of Advanced Study in Education will be set up by that period.  Efforts will also be made to provide programme support to other Secondary Teacher Education Institutes and also to develop training institutions not covered under the District Institutes of Education and Training/Colleges of Teacher Education/institutes of Advanced Study in Education scheme.  State Councils of Educational Research and Training will be made independent and autonomous, overseeing the functioning of District Institutes of Education and Training, District Resource Units, etc. National Council for Teacher Education will be conferred autonomous and statutory status and State Boards of Teacher Education will be set up for effective maintaining standards of teacher training institutions and other related functions.

The norms of Central assistance under the scheme will be reviewed and revised suitably:

(i) keeping in view the increased costs and other norms based requirements,
(ii) formulation by the States of an effective personnel policy and of suitable implementation strategy will be made a pre-condition for Central assistance.

Delegation of powers to the Principals and release of money in time will also be made per-conditions.  The possibility of releasing funds through autonomous State Councils of Educational Research and Training will also be explored and encouraged.  Encouragement will be given  to non-governmental teacher education institutions for upgradation, the possibility for releasing funds either directly or through State Councils of Educational Research and Training or through other agencies will be explored.

Efforts will also be made to provide training for pre-school education.

In the area of secondary teacher education, some of the better institutions will be provided programmes support so that benefit of in-service training could be provided to a larger number of secondary school teachers.  This will be  in addition to the existing schemes of Colleges of Teacher Education/Institutes of Advanced Study in Education.

A special programme will be launched for preparation and production of teaching-learning materials for teacher education in different languages.

(b) Teacher Educators:

The existing programme for teacher educators will be suitably modified taking into account the present day training needs.  The induction and continuing training programmes for the District Institutes of Education and Training/Colleges of Teacher Education/State Councils of Educational Research and Training faculty will be designed and implemented by the National Council of Educational Research and Training, National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration, etc.

(c) Special Orientation for School Teachers:

In order to achieve the desirable goal of in-service training of all the teachers within five years, special orientation programme for teachers will be launched covering about 4.50 to 5 lakh teachers per year.  Before launching the programme, detailed exercise for management, curriculum, teaching learning materials, including audio-video materials etc. will be undertaken.  Use of distance mode of training will be encouraged in these programmes and all other programmes of in-service training of teachers.  The programme will be implemented by National Council of Educational Research and Training through State Councils of Educational Research and Training and District Institutes of Education and Training with other national level institutions also providing necessary input.  Under this programme as well as under the training programmes conducted by the District Institutes of Education and Training, the emphasis will be on training the teachers in the use of Operation Blackboard materials and orienting them towards the Minimum Levels of Learning strategy with a focus on teaching of language, mathematics and environmental studies.

(d) Strengthening of State Councils of Educational Research and Training:

A revised scheme for strengthening of State Councils of Educational Research and Training for making them independent and autonomous and by providing norm-based non-recurring assistance on a long-term basis, will be formulated.

(e) National Council for Teacher Education:

The National Council for Teacher Education will be provided statutory status.  A Bill has been drafted for his purpose and would be introduced in the Parliament soon.  The Bill envisages a Council, an Executive Committee and Regional Committees.  The objectives of the National Council for Teacher Education are as follows:

(i) To create mechanism for determination and maintenance of standards of teacher education;
(ii) To regulate institutions of teacher education with a view to phasing out sub-standard and malpracticing institutions;
(iii) To lay emphasis on continuing education of teachers; and
(iv) To reduce the gap between supply and demand of  trained personnel.

The main functions of the National Council for Teacher Education envisaged in the Bill include:

(i) To lay down norms, standards and guidelines for teacher education courses and for institutions conducting such courses and to ensure their observance;
(ii) To promote coordination and linkages amongst various constituents of teacher education system and other related system, promote innovation and research in all areas of teacher education and the dissemination of their results and to promote the status of teacher education in the country;
(iii) To lay down norms, standards and guidelines for programmes of continuing education and professional development of teachers and teacher educators and training and education of personnel of adult and non-formal education; and
(iv) To advise the Central Government, State Governments, University Grants Commission, universities and other agencies in all matters relating to teacher education and its development especially in regard to priorities, policies, plans and programmes.   State Boards of Teacher Education will also be set up to help in this direction.

National Advisory Committee:
Learning Without Burden 1992

A National Advisory Committee was set up on 1 March 1992 by the Ministry of Human Resource Development under the Chairmanship of Prof. Yash Pal, Former Chairman, University Grants Commission, to advise on ways and means to reduce the load on school students, while improving quality of learning including capability for life-long self-learning and skill formulation.

Inadequate programme of teacher preparation leads to unsatisfactory quality of learning in schools.  The B.Ed. programme should offer the possibility of specialisation in secondary or elementary or nursery education.  The duration of the programme should either be one year after graduation or 3-4 years after higher secondary.  The content of the programme should be restructured, to ensure its relevance to the changing needs of school education and to make it more practicum-centered.   The emphasis in these programmes should be on enabling the trainees to acquire the ability for self-learning  and independent thinking.  Pre-service teacher education programme being a professional course has to be a rigorous, thorough and intensive programme.  Therefore, B.Ed. degree courses by correspondence by derecognised.

Continuing education of teachers must be institutionalised.   The organisation of in-service education programmes and other activities aimed at professional growth of teachers be systematically designed and conducted imaginatively.

The National Council for Teacher
Education Act 1993

An Act to provide for the establishment of a National Council for Teacher Education with a view to achieving planned and co-ordinated development of the teacher education system throughout the country, the regulation and proper maintenance of norms and standards in the teacher education system and for matters connected therewith.

Functions of the Council

It shall be the duty of the Council to take all such steps as it may think fit for ensuring planned and co-ordinated development of teacher education and for the determination and maintenance of standards for teacher education and for the purposes of performing its functions under this Act, the Council may:

(a) undertake surveys and studies relating to various aspects of teacher education and publish the result thereof:
(b) make recommendations to the Central and State Governments, Universities, University Grants Commission and recognised institutions  in the matter of preparation of suitable plans and programmes in the field of teacher education.
(c) co-ordinate and monitor teacher education and its development in the country.
(d) lay down guidelines in respect of minimum qualifications for a person to be employed as a teacher in schools or in recognised institutions;
(e) lay down norms for any specified category of courses or trainings in teacher education, including the minimum eligibility criteria for admission thereof, and the method of selection of candidates, duration of the course, course contents and mode of curriculum;
(f) lay down guidelines for compliance by recognised institutions, for starting new courses or training, and for providing physical and instructional facilities, staffing pattern and staff qualifications.
(g) lay down standards in respect of examinations leading to teacher education qualifications, criteria for admission to such examinations and schemes of courses or training;
(h) lay down guidelines regarding tuition fees and other fees chargeable by recognised institutions;
(i) promote and conduct innovation and research in various areas of teacher education and disseminate the results thereof.
(j) examine and review periodically the implementation of the norms, guidelines and standards laid down by the Council and to suitably advise the recognised institutions;
(k) evolve suitable performance appraisal systems, norms and mechanisms for enforcing accountability on recognised institutions;
(l) formulate schemes for various levels of teacher education  and identify recognised institutions and set up new institutions for teacher development programmes.
(m) take all necessary steps to prevent commercialisation of teacher education; and
(n) perform such other functions as may be entrusted to it by the Central Government.

Inspection

(a) For the purpose of ascertaining whether the recognised institutions are functioning in accordance with the provision of this Act, the Council may cause inspection of any such institution, to be made by such persons as it may direct, and in such manner as may be prescribed.
(b) The Council shall communicate to the institution the date on which inspection under sub-section (1) is to be made and the institution shall be entitled to be associated with   the inspection in such manner as may be prescribed.
(c) The Council shall communicate to the said institution, its view in regard to the results of any such inspection and may, after ascertaining the opinion of that institution, recommend to that institution the action to be taken as a result of such inspection.
(d) All communications to the institution under this section shall be made to the executive authority thereof, and the executive authority of the institution shall report to the Council the action, if any, which is  proposed to be taken for the purpose of implementing any such recommendation as is referred to in sub-section (3).

Recognition of Institution offering courses
or training in teacher education

(a) Every institution offering or intending to offer a course or training in teacher education on or after the appointed day, may. for grant of recognition under this Act, make an application to the Regional Committee concerned in such form and in such manner as may be determined by regulations.

Provided that an institution offering a course or training in teacher education immediately before the appointed day, shall be entitled to continue such course or training for a period of six months, if it has made an application for recognition within the said period and until the disposal of the application by the Regional Committee.

(b) The fee to be paid along with the application under sub-section (1) shall be such as may be prescribed.
(c) On  receipt of an application by the Regional Committee from any institution under sub-section (1), and after obtaining from the institution concerned such other particulars as it may consider necessary, it shall:

(i) if it is satisfied that such institution has adequate financial resources, accommodation, library, qualified staff, laboratory and that it fulfils such other conditions required for proper functioning of the institution for a course of training in teacher education, as may be determined by regulations, pass an order granting recognition to such institution, subject to such conditions as may be determined by regulations; or
(ii) if it is the opinion that such institution does not fulfil the requirements laid down in sub-clause (a), pass an order refusing recognition to such institution for reasons to be recorded in writing:

Provided that before passing an order under sub-clause (b), the Regional Committee shall provide a reasonable opportunity to the concerned institution for making a written representation.

(d) Every order granting or refusing recognition to an institution for a course or training in teacher education under sub-section (3) shall be published in the Official Gazette and communicated in writing for appropriate action to such institution and to the concerned examining body, the local authority or the State Government and the Central Government.

(e) Every institution, in respect of which recognition has been refused shall discontinue the course or training in teacher education from the end of the academic session next following the date of receipt of the order refusing recognition passed under clause (b) of sub-section (3).

(f) Every examining body shall, on receipt of the order under sub-section  (4)

(i) grant affiliation to the institution, where recognition has been granted; or
(ii) cancel the affiliation of the institution, where recognition has been refused.

Permission for a new course on training
by recognised institutions

(a) Where any recognised institution intends to start any new course or training in teacher education, it may make an application to seek permission therefor to the Regional Committee concerned in such form and in such manner as may be determined by regulations.
(b) The fees to be paid along with the application under sub-section (1) shall be such as may be prescribed.
(c) On receipt of an application from an institution under sub-section (1), and after obtaining from the recognised institutions such other particulars as may be considered necessary, the Regional Committee shall:

(i) if it is satisfied that such recognised institution has adequate financial resources, accommodation, library, qualified staff, laboratory, and that it fulfils such other conditions required for proper conduct of the new course or training in teacher education, as may be determined by regulations pass an order granting permission, subject to such conditions as may determined by regulations; or
(ii) if it is of the opinion that such institution does not fulfil the requirements laid down in sub-clause (a), pass an order refusing permission to such institution, for reasons to be recorded in writing;

Provided that before passing an order refusing permission under sub-class (b), the Regional Committee shall provide a reasonable opportunity to the institution concerned for making a written representation.

(d) Every order granting or refusing permission to a recognised institution for a new course or training in teacher education under sub-section (3), shall be published in the Official Gazette and communicated in writing for appropriate action to such recognised institution and to the concerned examining body, the local authority, the State Government and the Central Government.

Affiliating body to grant affiliation after
recognition or permission by the Council

Notwithstanding anything contained in any other law for the time being in force, no examining body shall on or after the appointed day,

(a) grant affiliation, whether provisional or otherwise, to any institution; or
(b) hold examination, whether provisional or otherwise, for a course or training conducted by a recognised institution.

Unless the institution concerned has obtained recognition from the Regional Committee concerned, under section 14 or permission for a course or training under section 15.

Contravention of provision of the Act and
Consequences thereof

(a) Where the Regional Committee is, on its own motion or on any representation received from any person, satisfied that a recognised institution has contravened any of the provisions of this Act, or the rules, regulations, orders made or issued thereunder, or any condition subject to which recognition  under sub-section (3) of section 14 or permission under sub-section (3) of section 15 was granted, it may withdraw recognition of such recognised institutions, for reasons to be recorded in writing:

Provided that no such order against the recognised institutions shall be passed unless a reasonable opportunity of making representation against the proposed order has been given to such recognised institutions:

Provided further that the order withdrawing of refusing recognition passed by the Regional Committee shall come into force only with effect from the end of the academic session next following the date of communication of such order.

(b) A copy of every order passed by the Regional Committee under sub-section (1),

(i) shall be communicated to the recognised institution concerned and a copy thereof shall also be forwarded simultaneously to the University or the examining body to which such institution was affiliated for canceling affiliation; and
(ii) shall be published in the Official Gazette for general information.

(c) If an institution offers any course or training in teacher education after the coming into force of the order withdrawing recognition under sub-section (1) or where an institution offering a course or training in teacher education immediately before the appointed day fails or neglects to obtain recognition or permission under this act, the qualification in teacher education obtained pursuant to such course or training or after undertaking a course or training in such institutions, shall not be treated a  valid qualification for purposes of employment under the Central Government, any State Government or University, or in any school, college or other educational body aided by the Central Government or any State Government.

Appeals

(a) Any person aggrieved by an order made under section 14 or section 15 or section 17 of the Act may prefer an appeal to the Council within such period as may be prescribed.

(b) The Council may confirm or reverse the order appealed against.

Report of the Group to Examine the
Feasibility of Implementing the
Recommendations of the National
Advisory Committee 1993

The group was set up on 25th August 1993 under the Chairmanship of Shri Y.N. Chaturvedi, Additional Secretary, Department of Education of the Ministry of Human Resource Development to examine the recommendations of the National Advisory Committee, under the chairmanship of Prof. Yash Pal (1993), to give its views on the feasibility of implementing them and a time schedule of implementation.

Major Recommendations

The writing of text books as far as possible, should be assigned to school teachers and to those who have developed professional expertise in the area.  Subject matter specialists should be engaged as consultants or advisers to the content and presentation of the subject matter to ensure its accuracy. There is a lot of merit in the argument advanced by the Yash Pal Committee for having a programme of B.Ed. aimed at elementary or secondary education.  In metropolitan cities a large number of teachers are actually getting recruited for pre-school and elementary school with B.Ed qualifications.  Recruitment in Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan and Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti is also, in practice, based on B.Ed. qualifications.  There this reality needs to be taken cognizance of and the present practice of emphasising secondary education in B.Ed. needs to be given up by enabling B.Ed. to the pursued with either specialisation in secondary or in elementary or in pre-school education.  In any case of the existing arrangements including the District Institutes of Education and Training for preparing primary schools teachers need to be continued and strengthened.

The recommendations of the Yash Pal Committee for derecognising correspondence B.Ed. degree has proved problematic.  While the National Council for Teacher Education has earlier made recommendations on these lines and the University Grants Commission has been interacting with the concerned universities during the last ten years on that basis, such courses are continuing.  A recent expert committee of the University Grants Commission has expressed that for women candidates and for people from rural areas, B.Ed. correspondence course opens up valuable career opportunities.  B.Ed. through correspondence course is one of the prominent courses in distance mode.  These arguments cannot be totally ignored.  The group understands that the matter is at an advanced stage and expected to become operational in the near future.  The group recommends that this matter should be referred to the University Grants Commission and the National Council for Teacher Education for appropriate decision.

The emphasis given by the Yash Pal Committee to continuing education of teachers is totally unexceptionable.  Thus District Institutes of Education and Training are being set up in the country primarily to meet this need.   Distance education system also is coming up in the country which can be used to meet the needs of in-service education.  However the progress in this regard has been slow.  The group fully supports periodic in-service training of teachers and recommends that the District Institutes of Education and Training should be operationalised as early as possible and the distance mode extensively to strengthen   in-service training of teachers.

Guidelines for Running of B.Ed
Through Correspondence 1993

This committee was appointed by the University Grants Commission under the Chairmanship of Prof. Ramlal Parikh in 1993.

Major Recommendations

The Committee felt that continuance or launching of B.Ed course through Distance Education should be permitted by the University Grants Commission only under the following conditions:

Ceiling on Enrolment

The universities running B.Ed. correspondence course should not admit more than 250 student in a year.

Eligibility for teachers in service

(a) a minimum of five years teaching experience in a recognised school should be required, preference being given to teaching with some form of training qualification of junior school; and
(b) a Bachelors' degree from a recognised university.

Eligibility for General Candidates

(c) Minimum qualification for admission should be graduation with 60% marks or a Master's degree with relaxation of marks up to 5% for Scheduled Caste/Scheduled Tribe.

Staffing Pattern

The core staff for the B.Ed. distance education course should have the same qualifications as the full time staff of the other academic departments of the university.

The Distance Education  should be organised in close collaboration with the Department of Education of the university and the State colleges of education with core staff of ten teachers, who may be drawn either from the regular or retired staff having all the academic qualifications prescribed by the respective universities for teaching the B.Ed. course.

Instructional Methodology

Universities running the B.Ed. programme through distance education mode should develop high quality self-instructional packages and technological support services of acceptable quality on the lines advocated by the National Council of Educational Research and Training/National Council for Teacher Education.  There should be:

(a) A minimum of two courses of 30 days face-to-face personal contact programmes of which  10 days each should be set apart for practical aspects of teaching like tutorials in optional subjects, record preparation, couselling simulation, case studies and lesson preparation supported by projects and assignments.
(b) A compulsory supervised internship of 60 days be prescribed for each student where he/she will be attached to an identified school for practice work under recognised supervisors.  Working teachers should be required to spend at least 50% of their time in identified schools other than their own for practice teaching and training in supportive aspects of teaching practice, like observation, preparation of audio-visual use of technological preparation of lessons, evaluation methodology record keeping etc.

Committee of University Grants
Commission on B.Ed. Correspondence/
Distance Education Programme 1994

This  committee was appointed by the University Grants Commission under the Chairmanship of Prof. Kherma  Lyngdoh in 1994, to evaluate B.Ed. Correspondence or Distance Education Programmes.

Major Recommendations
Duration of B.Ed. Course and intake capacity

The duration of B.Ed. programme through distance education should be of 14 months including Personal Contact Programmes and teaching practice.

Eligibility of admission

The eligibility for joining the B.Ed. Programme should be:

Personal Contact Programme and
Student
Assignment

The personal contact programme of 30 days duration (6 hours a day) must be compulsory and students must attend at least 75% of these classes.

Student assignments must be compulsory.  They should be carefully evaluated by teachers/tutors with detailed constructive comments.  25 to 30 per cent marks awarded should count towards internal assessment and 75 or 70 per cent for the terminal examination.  The turn-around time of students assignments should not exceed 3-4 weeks.  Institutes must have adequate number of well-organised and properly equipped study centres for personal contact/counselling sessions.  The number of students per centre should not exceed 60 learners.  However, the personal contact programmes at different centres may be staggered in order to accommodate all the students.

Teaching Practice

Teaching practice of at least 40 lessons must be properly organised and monitored by the principal, teachers of the Institutes/University Departments of Education/Colleges of Education/retired teachers of these Institutes.

Course Material

The Course material which is the mainstay of correspondence/distance education mode must be of high quality and in proper self-instructional distance education format.

Core Staff

Institutes offering B.Ed. distance education programme must have adequate core staff, both teaching and non-teaching in proportion with the course offered and the enrolment.  The rest of the faculty may be drawn on part-time/contractual/fixed remuneration basis from among teachers of the colleges of education, including retired teachers.

Monitoring and Evaluation of the Programme

The University Grants Commission should have a standing committee to evaluate and monitor the B.Ed. Programme, periodically.  The committee should visit the institutes offering B.Ed. correspondence programme and if they are not satisfied with the quality of different aspects and operations of the programme of any university, they may recommend to the University Grants Commission to ask such a university to discontinue its B.Ed programme.

Special Orientation Programme
for School Teachers 1994-97

Special Orientation Programme for School Teachers was proposed to be carried out during the VIII plan.  Under this scheme it is expected to train 4-5 lakh teachers every year during the last four years of the eight plan (1992-97). The emphasis under the training programme will be on training in the use of Operation Blackboard materials and orienting teachers toward Minimum Levels of Learning strategy with a focus on teaching of language, mathematics and environmental studies.

Training Schedule

Training programme has to start in autumn break for a week, winter break for a week and three weeks during June.  In States where academic session starts from April training will be for three weeks.  In States where vacations are in December and January, training will be undertaken during that period.

Mode of Training Programme

Key persons comprise staff of State Councils of Educational Research and Training, Colleges of Teacher Education, Institutes of Advanced Study in Education, District Institutes of Education and Training and others as identified by State authorities.  Their training will be done by the faculty of Regional Colleges of Education and some of the leading education departments of the universities.  Key persons in turn will train resource persons at the block level who in turn will train primary school teachers at the block level.  Training schedule has to be communicated keeping in view local conditions and administrative feasibility.  State authorities should communicate to the National Council of Educational Research and Training the dates for these training programmes.

Selection Criteria for Training of Personnel

(a) Key persons/resource persons for training are to be selected from Institutes of Advanced Study in Education, Colleges of Teacher Education, District Institutes of Education and Training, State Councils of Educational Research and Training and primary teachers' training institutes. Persons nominated should be directly dealing with in-service training programmes and elementary education.  Leading and reputed non-governmental agencies can also be considered.
(b) Primary school teachers should be sponsored from schools covered under Operational Blackboard in such a way that:

(i) at least two teachers from every school covered under the scheme of Operation Blackboard in the first phase during 1993-94 are trained.
(ii) teachers from those non-government schools which have been covered under Operation Blackboard schemes may also be included.

Committee of National Council for
Teacher Education on Different Modes
of Education used for Teacher Preparation
in India 1995

National Council for Teacher Education constituted an Expert Committee under the Chairmanship of Dr. R.C. Das, on 21st December 1994.  The Committee examined all relevant documents, reports of earlier committees and decisions and action taken so far by the National Council for Teacher Education and the University Grants Commission regarding correspondence/distance education mode of teacher education.   It also examined all available data on teacher requirements, existing facilities for teacher education, enrolment in different types of institutions, fees charged from students, and the methods of organising theoretical and practical aspects of teacher education in different institutions.

It deliberated on the expected role of the elementary and secondary teacher in India today and the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values that the teacher should have to discharge his/her functions effectively.  It then considered the appropriateness of the different modes of education for the per-service teacher education programme to prepare such a teacher.

Major Recommendations

Considering the knowledge, skills attitudes and values that need to be developed in a teacher at the school level for efficient discharge of his functions, pre-service teacher education for the first degree/diploma should be only through face-to-face institutional courses of teacher education of a minimum of one academic year's duration.

No further admission should be made to courses of teacher education other than regular face-to-face institutional programme of minimum of one academic year's duration from the academic session 1995-96 onwards.

Regarding part-time face-to-face institutionalised programme of teacher education, it is recommended that National Council for Teacher Education after obtaining detailed information from these institutions may consider their recognition only if their programmes are equivalent to face-to-face full-time institutional programmes in their total duration of instruction including practice teaching and other practical work, academic staff and other infrastructure as per National Council for Teacher Education norms.

Correspondence/distance education mode can be used effectively for in-service education of teachers at all levels who have already obtained their first degree/diploma in teacher education.  Every teacher of primary, secondary and higher secondary level should successfully undergo a course of in-service education of specified duration at least once in every five years so as to be eligible for further increments.

Credit points may be given for satisfactory completion of an in-service course after evaluation.  These credit points can be accumulated by a teacher over a period of time by taking different courses.  A certificate/diploma may be given after a teacher acquires a certain number of credits through in-service courses.

All instructional materials of an in-service course should be revised at least once in every five years.

As far as possible multi-media packages in self-instructional format should be developed for in-service education courses.

National Council for Teacher Education may identify suitable agencies at the Central, State and district levels for developing materials and for organising in-service education programmes for teachers.  National Council for Teacher Education should also ensure standard of quality in the in-service education programmes.

A teacher education programme/institution will be considered to be indulging in commercialization if the total recurring receipts including those from students per year exceed the recurring expenditure of that year in the programme by more than 10%. This may be ascertained by obtaining annual returns of income and expenditure of the programme/institution.

All money received by an institution should be duly receipted and accounted for.

While identifying institutions indulging in commercialization, the National Council for Teacher Education  may look into the following indicators:

In order to stop commercialization, National Council for Teacher Education may take necessary action so that:

(i) capitation fees should not be collected for admission of students
(ii) admissions to teacher education institutions should be made strictly on merit basis subject to government rules on reservation.
(iii) admission to teacher education institutions should be closed after one month of starting of the academic session.

If an institution is identified to be indulging in commercialization, National Council for Teacher Education may adopt the following action:

B.Ed. Through Correspondence for
In-Service Teacher 1995

The Committee was appointed under the Chairmanship of Prof. R. Takwale, Vice-Chancellor, Indira Gandhi National Open University.  The first meeting of this Committee to resolve the issue regarding continuation or otherwise of B.Ed. through correspondence in the Indian universities was held on 1st March, 1995 in the University Grants Commission and second meeting was held on 16th March, 1995.  This Committee's recommendations have been approved by University Grants Commission and National Council for Teacher Education.

Major Recommendations:
Jurisdiction

Each university will admit only those candidates who are currently working in school system located in the territorial jurisdiction assigned to it by the Act/State Government.

Eligibility Criteria

Entry qualification for admission in terms of marks at graduation or other levels will be the same as prescribed by the State Governments for recruitment of teachers or prescribed for entry to regular teacher education programmes.   The admissions will be made after a written entrance examination.

Course

B.Ed. Distance Education mode for secondary teachers.

Number of Seats

No university will admit than 500 candidates in a given academic year.

Duration

24 months for B.Ed. courses, exclusive of the time taken for formalities of entrance test, admission test.

Tuition Fee

Same as applicable to other B.Ed. candidates of the university.  However extra charges may be levied on students to cover the cost of print material, audio-visual packages postage, library service etc.

Entry Qualifications

Only those regular teachers serving in recognised school   (primary, secondary and higher secondary levels) within the jurisdiction of the university with minimum of three years of teaching experience.

Staff Structure

For every 500 students there will be 10 full time core faculty and additional complement of 10 part time faculty members.

Teacher Education in Five Year Plans

First Five Year Plan (1951-56)
Major Recommendation

Training of teachers, especially women teachers and teachers for basic schools and also retraining of trained teachers is required for purpose of educational reorganisation.  Improvement in their pay scale and conditions of service is also required.

The teachers should also be taught to handle more than one class at a time.

All Government demonstration farms should be used for training the staff of basic institutions.  The method of selection should be so devised as to give due weight to personal traits in the teacher like the love of children and rural areas, self help, initiative, resourcefulness etc. which constitute really the components to his success as a basic teacher.

The training of a large number of teachers, required within a reasonably short period of time, is a colossal task, which will need the closet cooperation of the Central Government, State Governments and non-official bodies.

The training programmes should be split up into two parts both proceeding side by side: one concentrating on quality and other on those basic skills and knowledge like organised community living, draft work etc.  The teacher trained by later method should continue to be trained on the job by guiding literature, by holding short refresher course etc.  Teacher training in social education work should be compulsory in all training colleges.  The State should provide special grants for the department of social education in training colleges for some years to come to give an impetus to the work.  Short and intensive training in social education work should be organised in camps for teachers already in job.

Second Five Year Plan (1956-61)
Major Recommendations

In training for basic teachers seminars, refresher courses and schemes of in-service training should be organised.

Training of secondary teachers for vocational courses will need a great deal of attention.  The teaching of crafts in elementary and secondary schools is one of the essential features in the reconstruction of the system of education.   There is general agreement that the teaching profession fails to attract a sufficient number of persons who adopt teaching as a vocation and that many persons work as teachers for a short period and then move on to other occupations.  Improvement in conditions of teacher is an important desiration or progress in education.  The number of teachers has risen from 7.3 lakh before the First Five Year Plan to 10.24 lakh in 1955-56.  It is expected that the proportion of trained teachers will increase to 79 per cent and 68 per cent in primary and secondary school respectively.

Third Five Year Plan (1961-66)
Major Recommendations
Trained Teachers for Basic and other Schools

Teachers who have not been trained in basic education should be given short orientation courses.

The most important measure for the expansion of basic education is the provision of larger facilities for the training of teachers for basic schools and the reorganisation of existing training centres along basic lines.  At the end of the Second Plan elementary school teachers were being trained in 1307 institutions, of which about 70% were already organised on the basic pattern.

In most states the period of training of elementary school teachers is proposed to be extended to two years with a view to ensuring a greater measure of thoroughness both in regard to courses and methods.  In a number of training schools extension departments will be established for improving the quality of teaching in schools in the neighborhood.

Secondary school teachers have to be thoroughly prepared for handling new subjects efficiently.  The teacher education programme at the pre-service level has also to be reorganised in line with the changes that have taken place at the secondary level.

Training of Teachers

The number of training colleges has risen from 53 in 1950-51 to 236 in 1960-61.  In the Third Plan the number of training colleges is expected to increase to 312.  The existing training colleges will also be strengthened and expanded to increase the supply of trained teachers.  Special emphasis should be given to pre-service training of teachers in Science and Social Studies.  To provide in-service training facilities for secondary school teachers, extension centres were established during the Second Plan at 54 selected training colleges.  These centres have been carrying out a comprehensive programme of in-service training covering, seminars, workshops and seminars.  The extension service programme has been found to be a valuable medium for continuous in service training and as means of keeping training colleges and the secondary schools in close touch with each other.

Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-74)
Major Recommendations
Teacher Education

To provide for the expansion of enrolment at the elementary and secondary stages and to improve the quality of existing teachers, the programme of teacher training is being stepped up.  The number of school teachers is estimated to increase from 1.4 million in 1960-61 to 2.2 million in 1968-69.  There has been considerable expansion of teacher training facilities during the last eight years, but this has not kept pace with the expansion of educational facilities and the number of untrained teachers went up from 490,000 in 1960-61 to 550,000 in 1968-69.  The number of trained teachers, during the same period, increased from 897,000 to 1.65 million, raising the percentage of trained teachers from 65 per cent to 74 per cent.   Facilities are being provided on a full-time basis for meeting these additional requirement largely through expansion of existing training institutions.  To reduce the backlog of untrained teachers, correspondence courses will be provided.

In-service training, specially of mathematics and science teachers will be emphasised.  The facilities available in universities, State Institutes of Science Education and of summer institutes and correspondence courses will be utilised for this purpose.

Funds will be placed at the disposal of the University Grants Commission to improve secondary teacher training institutions and to develop departments.  Their efforts will be coordinated with those of the National Council of Educational Research and Training and the State Institutes of Education.

Fifth Five Year Plan (1974-79)
Major Recommendations

Adequate provision has been made for additional enrolment in terms of teaching personnel and construction of classrooms, especially in backward areas.  In addition to expansion of educational facilities, provision has been made for co-curricular reorientation, work experience and strengthening of educational institutions for teachers.

There should be expansion of apprenticeship training programmes and supply of essential commodities to hostel students at subsidised prices.

Sixth Five Year Plan (1980-85)
Major Recommendations

The concept of learning and development through play and joyful activities should be articulated, across age groups, through a programme which should be comprehensive in scope, integrated in nature and reinforced over a long time.

The pre-service as well as in-service training of teachers in all subjects should be promoted on an extensive scale.

Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90)
Major Recommendations

The training of teachers will include, apart from pedagogy, the use of mass media, science and technology, planning and curriculum design for local environment based courses, mobilisation and use of community resources and other relevant subjects.

There should be special emphasis on teaching methods and other measures particularly required for educating first generation learners and for reducing the number of dropouts.  Teacher training institutions should be developed and strengthened accordingly.

Facilities should be created for training of additional teachers required during the Seventh Five Year Plan period.  Training of teachers in non formal and early childhood education should be organised by suitably strengthening the existing teacher training centres.

It is necessary to think of a variety of training arrangements.  Among others, these would include:

(a) In-service education by utilising the mass media, as was done during Satellite Instructional Television Experiment.
(b) Adoption of schools of lower levels of education by institutions of high level for upgrading of teacher competencies.
(c) Despatch of teacher guidance notes by training schools.
(d) Publication of bulletins informing teachers of new developments.
(e) use of correspondence course materials supported by occasional contact.

For continuous improvement in quality of secondary education an effective system of in-service training of teachers is necessary.  The existing facilities will be assessed, additional requirements identified and steps taken to meet them.

Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97)
Major Recommendations
Teacher Education

Statutory status will accorded to the National Council for Teacher Education to lay down and maintain standards in institutions and courses.

Schemes of District Institutes of Education and Training, and Institutes of Advanced Study in Education would be continued and their coverage expanded with a view to strengthening the institutional infrastructure and programmes of teacher education.

Schemes for strengthening of State Councils of Educational Research and Training would be sanctioned and implemented and suitable measures for selection and professional development of staff in State Councils of Educational Research and Training, District Institutes of Education and Training and Institutes of Advanced Study in Education will be undertaken.

A large number of teachers will be covered through in-service programmes both institutional and distance education and reputed professional organisations will be encouraged to conduct in-service and refresher courses for teachers.

Open universities at the national and state levels will be encouraged to introduce induction teacher training courses to supplement the efforts of the existing training institutions. The bulk of seats in teacher training colleges would be reserved for rural women.

Curriculum Framework for Quality
Teacher Education 1998

The drafting Committee on Curriculum Framework for Quality Teacher Education was set up by the National Council for Teacher Education under the Chairmanship of Prof. J.S. Rajput to evolve a comprehensive curriculum framework for quality teacher education covering various types of teacher education programmes including alternative modes.  It has recommended a transition of one-year B.Ed. Programme to two years of duration.  It also outlines specific programmes for teacher educators at Master's level.

Pre-Service Teacher Education
Tasks Ahead

Teacher education in India, with a view to making it relevant to the school system as well as training needs for preparing teachers at different levels, will have to be further restructured, reorganised and revamped.   Multiple models of teacher education may have to be evolved by the universities and other agencies including National Council for Teacher Education.  The innovative models to be undertaken have to be relevant from the point of view of the teacher educator as well as those who will assume the role of professionals, requiring interdisplinarity, broader vision, goal consciousness and commitment.  These would lead to the improvement in the standards of teacher education and develop professional competencies.   Another significant feature of such models would be their being feasible and cost effective.  The detailed course outlines will be developed by the universities through their various academic bodies.  It, however, pre-supposes that the duration is suitably adjusted with the entry qualifications.  Mismatches between the need of teacher education institutions and the professional preparation of teacher educators working in such institutions will have to be bridged.

There are several workable propositions for evolving a variety of models like school-based models, community based-models, discipline-oriented models, integrated models, comprehensive models etc.  Needless to say, it would be necessary to initiate integrated and comprehensive programmes of teacher preparation both in academic and vocational streams.  The state-specific and the need-specific models will have to be evolved.

For Special Teachers

For each category of impairment and disability, special courses shall have to be designed to prepare specialised teachers.  Products of such courses would qualify to work as resource teachers in general schools and general classroom teachers in special schools.

In-Service Teacher Education
Strategies

Strategies adopted in in-service teacher education programmes would vary programme-wise and theme-wise.  One has to judiciously select an appropriate training strategy or a mix of training strategies keeping in view the theme, programme duration, background of participants, availability of resource persons, support material and technologies of training at hand.  Training strategies would range from lecture-cum-discussion to project work, library work, group interaction and field visits.

There may be many models of in-service training.  Some of these are:

Face-to-Face Institutional Model: In this model, the training institution offers in-service training progress at its premises using direct face-to-face training approach.  It is most effective when the number of participants is around 30 to 40.  Besides lecture-cum-discussion mode, many other transactional strategies are also used, namely project method, case method, library work, peer learning sessions, buzz sessions and other small group techniques.  The merit of this approach is that there is a direct and sustained interaction between  the participants and the resource persons.  The limitation of this approach is that it cannot be used when the institution wants to train a very large number of participants within a short time.

Cascade Model:  In this model, the number of persons to be trained is very large and the training design is built on two or three-tier systems.  In the first lap,  the key resource persons are given training.  They train resource persons who, in turn, train teachers.  The advantage of this model is that the large number of teachers can be trained within a short duration of time.  However, it has its limitations.  Knowledge and information passed on at the first tier of key resource persons and then at the second tier of resource persons get somewhat diluted resulting in transmission loss of training effectiveness.

Media Based Distance Education Model:  With the advent of satellite technology and computers many training programmes are imparted using electronic media.  Audio-conferencing and Tele-conferencing are already being used.   In these, the electronic media play the key role and the print material a supportive role.  The advantage of this model is that the training objectives can be achieved within a limited time period.  The constraint of this approach, however, is the limited availability of the technology itself and its high initial investment.

Besides the above three models, some other important considerations also contribute to the effectiveness of an in-service training programme.  These are:

(i) Locale: Training institutions at the national, state and district level organise training programmes generally at their respective institutions.  These institution-based trainings have their own strengths in terms of availability of resources.  Their limitations are that they dislodge participants from their work place.  This approach is often known as the off-site approach.  On the other hand, many institutions organise training programmes at the school itself, using the on-site approach.  Thus, the participants are not dislodged from their work place.  Extension programmes in on-site programmes take training to the doorsteps of schools/institutions.

(ii) Target Groups:  At present, in-service programmes are organised largely for teachers.  A few programmes are also organised for headmasters, principlals and other supervisory staff.  This net has to be widened and many more categories of personnel have to be brought into its fold.   In-service teacher education programmes ought to be offered to all teachers working at pre-primary, primary, elementary, secondary and senior secondary levels.  These could cater to teachers working in formal schools, non-formal centres, open and distance teaching institutions and institutions of physical education, adult education, special education etc.

Teacher educators, in general, have limited exposure to in-service education.  There is a need to train teacher educators at all levels. In fact, an apex institution needs to be set up for training of teacher educators.   Alternatively,  some selected institutions may develop special expertise in training of teacher educators.  Such institutions would have to develop relevant material and undertake critical research studies relevant to in-service programmes of teacher educators.

Besides teachers, supervisors and administrators, there are other categories like Zila Pramukh, Pradhan, Sarpanch etc. connected with Panchayati Raj system who have the responsibility to look after primary level education.  Depending upon the resources available the staff of the support system including librarians, hostel wardens etc. should also be exposed to various programmes to enhance their professional competence.

(iii) Transactional Strategies: An effective in-service education and training programme would use various transactional strategies like case study method, brain storming session, panel discussions, seminars, symposia, small group techniques, project work, library work and lecture-cum-discussion sessions.

The organisers and the resource persons can make an in-service teacher education programme more effective and interesting if the age, experience and background of the participants are appropriately used at the planning phase.  Since in-service participants bring a lot of experience and way of looking at educational events, they can significantly contribute to the design and development of the programmes.

(iv) Content:  Content of in-service programmes would depend upon objectives of each programme which could be grouped under the following major categories:

The focus of in-service programmes is on developing competencies and commitments.  The overall aim of in-service programmes is to enable teachers to improve their classroom activities, out-of-the-classroom activities, school activities and community activities.

(v) Evaluation and follow-up:  Evaluation is a weak link in many in-service training programmes.  In most of the cases, in-service programmes are evaluated, if at all, on an adhoc basis.  Each in-service teacher education programme should have monitoring as an integral component so that effectiveness of a programme can be properly assessed and appraised.  Programme evaluation should assess whether the required inputs were provided to the programme on time, the logistics properly looked after and coordinated, the reading materials provided to participants etc.  Another aspect of programme evaluation should be to assess the gains of each participant and yet another subtle aspect is the impact of the programme at the grassroots level and in the field situation.

Success of an in-service teacher education programme may be assessed by collecting perceptions both of trainees and resource persons.  A comprehensive view on quality assurance could be obtained by taking note of the following:

Pointers for the future

Education of Teacher Educators

The professional quality of teacher educators will determine the quality of the training of teachers, both pre-service and in-service. The professional level at which teachers are prepared would, in turn, determine the quality of school education. Again, teacher educators have to be fully familiar with the school realities, social environment and community expectations to realistically perform the challenging tasks before them. On the professional side, teacher educators need to be actively associated with policy formulations, implementation strategies and monitoring of programmes.

Rationale and Objectives

Education and training of teacher educators has to focus attention on the new role of teacher educators, on the problems which reflect the emerging global trends in education and the overall needs and aspirations of the people. It has also to deal with specific problems confronting teacher education institutions and to make teacher education more responsible and responsive. It has to encourage teacher educators' continuing professional growth also. In addition, there are certain practical problems as well. For instance, what would be the basic qualifications of teacher educators at various stages of teacher preparation ? What would be the requirements in respect of the core education courses and for the organisation of procedures and practices in the institutions? Answers to several of such issues have to be sought in the very rationale of providing professional education.

A comprehensively identified list of objectives for the programmes of preparation of teacher educators would be to: