Curriculum Framework on Teacher Education


Table of Contents



Chapter Number

Chapter Name


Chapter 1



Chapter 2

Context, Concerns and Challenges of  Teacher Education


Chapter 3

Pre-service Teacher Education


Chapter 4

In-service Teacher Education


Chapter 5

Education of Teacher Educators


Chapter 6

Management of Teacher Education


Chapter 7

Research in Teacher Education





 1.1       Introduction


            "Education has continued to evolve, diversify and extend its coverage since the dawn of history.  Every country develops its system of education to express and promote its unique socio-cultural identity and also to meet the challenges of time". These words of the National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986 subsequently revised in 1992, give direction  to Indian Education. The policy further emphasises that “the Government of India will also review, every five years, the progress made and recommend guidelines for further development”.  In the light of the aforesaid statements, the National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE), a statutory body, established by the Government of India for the maintenance of standards and improvement of the quality of teacher education in the country, came out with a Curriculum Framework for Quality Teacher Education (Curriculum Framework hereafter) in 1998 and placed it before the nation.


            During these years, large scale and far reaching developments as well as changes have taken place on the national and international scenes in social, economic, cultural, scientific and technological spheres as well as in information and communication technologies. These  developments have affected education, including teacher education necessitating review and reform of Indian teacher education. Taking a serious note of  these developments, agencies responsible for education from nursery to tertiary and professional education have reviewed / revised their programmes and courses of study.  The National Council for Teacher Education has to initiate suitable measures to make teacher education at various levels responsive to such developments as well as to quality concerns in future.


            Education of teachers not only facilitates improvement of school education by preparing competent, committed and professionally well qualified teachers who can meet the demand of the system, but also functions as a bridge between schooling  and higher education.  It has to meet twin demands : (a) challenges of the education system including higher education, and (b) the ever-changing demands of  the social system.  The role of teacher education as a  process of nation building is universally recognised.  Its objective is man-making and producing enlightened citizens. But teacher education in India, because of its history and also due to various factors beyond its control, has by and large been confined to school education only.


“In Indian thinking, a human being is a positive asset and a precious national resource, which needs to be cherished, nurtured and developed with tenderness and care, coupled with dynamism”.  It hardly needs stressing that stereotyped instructional approaches are not conducive to realize this goal. “India’s political and social life is passing through a phase which poses the danger of erosion to long accepted values.  The goals of secularism, socialism and professional ethics are coming under increasing strain”.  To make teachers aware of this menace, teacher education needs to devise new strategies for enabling teachers to address this task. Teachers serve education which is an effective instrument of man-making.  The teachers learn this art through pre-service teacher education programme.  A weak programme of teacher education cannot serve this purpose.  “The status of teachers reflects the socio-cultural ethos of a society; it is said that no people can rise above the level of its teachers”.  It is with the objectives of raising the professional status of teachers, developing  among them greater commitment to society, their students and their profession, increasing their professional competencies and performance skills and empowering them to face new challenges that the National Council for Teacher Education has brought forth this document.


1.2       Historical Perspective


            Teacher education in India has a long past but a short history. Gurukul-centred tradition of the Vedic period was somewhat modified and enriched under the influence of Budhistic vihara-based system. This continued till the 11th century A.D. The arrival of the Muslims witnessed the rise of a paralled Maktab-based tradition and the two traditions thrived side by side till the coming of the British. Both the traditions underwent some modification during this period. Historical records of the decisions taken, the finances made available and their implementation and later evaluation became relatively more systematically organised because of the documentation by the British.


            The independence of India on the 15th August, 1947 marks a defining moment in the history of our nation. Our long-drawn struggle for independence that preceded it  witnessed much strife and bloodshed. Over the years people became unified as never before. Indians wanted Swaraj and had plans about how the nation would develop after the departure of the British. Indian educational system including that of teacher education saw greater reflection of national aspirations and needs of the people during the post-independence period. Much of what happened during the next two decades (1948-68) is crucial to fuller understanding of what is happening now and in which direction(s) our education system is moving and ought to move.


1.3       Teacher Education in Independent India


            India’s independence, division of the country and related disturbances took place almost simultaneously and drew the attention of national leaders.  Transformation of the ‘economy of scarcity’ into the ‘economy of plenty’, and reducing unemployment of the youth and food shortage became their main priorities.  The system of education and teacher education established by the Raj continued without substantial modification. It was feared that an abrupt departure from the existing system may bring about disruption and destabilization.  But as the situation improved, greater attention was paid to education and teacher education.  The first step in this direction was setting up of the University Education Commission (1948) which made valuable suggestions regarding pre-service and in-service education of teachers and linking the programme of teacher preparation with the university system.


            Subsequently, the Secondary Education Commission (1953) appointed to examine the conditions of school education made specific suggestions about the preparation of teachers.  Among its chief recommendations were : (a) two-year training programme for under graduates; (b) one year training for graduates; ( c) affiliation of graduate training colleges to universities; (d) training for organizing curricular activities; (e) organisation of refresher courses; (f) providing residential facilities; (g) emphasis on research; and (h) exchange of teachers from teachers colleges to schools and vice-versa.  Many of the recommendations were accepted and implemented.  The Committee on Higher Education  for Rural Areas, (1954) and that on Women’s Education (1959) also made valuable suggestions for teacher education in their respective areas, but they did not attract national attention because of their limited scope.


            The Review Committee on Education (1960) made major recommendations about post-graduate studies in education and research, education of administrators and qualifications of teacher educators.  Most of these recommendations were accepted and implemented.  Many other committees were appointed to look into teacher education from different perspectives.  Only some of the suggestions were carried out because teacher education was no one's exclusive responsibility.  Teacher education was looked after by the Centre, the States, the universities, and public and private enterprise. Besides, its problems were not examined in totality. The availability of resources for teacher education was also a problem.  Further, teacher education was not accorded adequate importance in the agenda of education.


            The Education Commission (1964-66) submitted a comprehensive report which served as a basis for establishing a uniform national structure of education covering all stages and aspects of education.  It emphasized the necessity of professional preparation  of teachers for qualitative improvement of education.  Recognizing teacher education as a distinct academic discipline of higher studies different from pedagogy, it suggested establishing schools of education in certain universities, starting of extension programmes, increase in the duration of training of teachers, opening of comprehensive colleges, exchange of teacher educators, and revision and revitalization of courses of study. It recommended that its isolation be removed and laid stress on the importance of practice teaching and in-service education.  It recommended allocation of more funds for teacher preparation, better salaries and improved service conditions for teachers and their educators to attract competent people to the profession.  On the whole, it was the first comprehensive and meaningful report on education in general and teacher education  in particular.  It is noteworthy that the Centre and the State Governments implemented various recommendations of the Commission which resulted in considerable improvement in the professional education of teachers. The attempts to bring about qualitative changes in teacher education continued thereafter.  Based on the recommendations of the Commission, the National Policy on Education (1968) was formulated. The working of National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) was also reviewed.  The NCERT and its Regional Colleges of education were expected to play a greater role in the education of teachers.


            The non-statutory National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE) was set up in 1974 by a resolution of the Government of India and was located in the NCERT. It brought out its curriculum framework in 1978. The statutory NCTE established by an Act of Parliament in 1993 further came out with a Curriculum Framework (1998) to provide guidelines in respect of  the content and methodology of teacher education.  As a result of this, the courses of teacher education were revised by many universities and state governments.


            During this period, the National Commission on Teachers (1983) studied in depth the problems of teacher education and the status of teachers in society.  Its main recommendations were directed at enhancing the period of training, change in selection procedure of teachers, making the pedagogy of teacher education meaningful leading to enrichment of the theory courses and practical work.  It suggested changes in the structure of M.Ed. programme also.  On the basis of these suggestions, another curriculum framework was issued in 1988 but it could not catch national attention because the work on NPE (1986) had already started, and which opened new vistas in teacher education.


It recognized continuity and inseparability of pre-and in-service teacher education and recommended permanent educational  mechanisms for this purpose.  As a consequence DIETs, CTEs and IASEs  were established across the country.  NPE (1986) was followed by a Programme of Action (1986) which provided details about the needed transformation of policy into action.  Its emphasis was on the enrichment of both in-service and the pre-service teacher education programmes, computer education and new as well as alternative models of teacher preparation.  It is hearting to discern that directions given in NPE (1986) and recommendations of the Programme of Action were largely implemented with encouraging results.


            As a statutory body responsible for the coordination and maintenance of standards in teacher education, NCTE issued a Curriculum Framework for Quality Teacher Education in 1998.  Before issuing it, the Council sought and ensured a national consensus in its favour.  This is a comprehensive document that deals with almost all aspects of teacher education including its context, concerns and also the social philosophy of teacher education in Indian society which contemplates a synthesis between unity and diversity, freedom and compulsion, social planning and individual initiative.  Its salient features were :


-           increased duration and multiple models of teacher education;

-           updating of theoretical and practical components of teacher education by giving new orientation and adding new inputs to the existing programmes;

-           emphasis on developing professionalism, commitment, competencies and performance skills;

-           optimal utilization of the potentialities of community, university and information and communication technology for preparation of teachers;

-           making provisions for preparation of teachers for the neglected sections of society, and

-           suggesting alternative educational programmes for teachers of gifted children, teachers of senior secondary schools and specialized programme of education for teacher educators.


Besides, there were other suggestions too which were well received by the nation. Some of its recommendations were implemented. But all of them  could not be put into practice due to various reasons.


In the meanwhile, many major changes in the policy of Indian state were effected.  New developments in science and technology at national and international levels with far reaching educational and cultural consequences, challenges of post modernity, counter- culture, consumerism, value crisis and post-industrial society became evident. India could not remain isolated in an interdependent world. New pressures brought about by liberalization, privatization, globalization, information and communication technology and market forces and even maladies like HIV/AIDS had to be faced. The nature, objectives, contents and pedagogy of subjects at the school stage were also transformed. Such a situation demands appropriate changes in teacher education as well. Teachers are now expected to educate students about ‘learning to learn’, ‘learning to do’, ‘learning to live together, and ‘learning to be'. In addition to these, international experiments in education, in the context of teacher education, need to be absorbed in teacher education programmes in India. All these demand a fresh look at teacher education.


            The agenda, before the NCTE is thus twofold: to remove the existing deficiencies of teacher education and to meet the demand of  new challenges before it. The Council is, therefore committed to achieve both, by highlighting the following functions of teacher education institutions (TEIs).


   -        to provide qualified faculty, adequate infrastructure and learning resources, including print material, off-line IT material and computers as per prevalent NCTE norms for quality transaction of its teacher education programme;

-           to promote corporate institutional life based on values and ideals enshrined in the preamble of Indian Constitution for all stakeholders in thee institution e.g. students, faculty, non-teaching staff etc;

-           to provide and use all necessary inputs for promoting the development of competent and committed professionals to students, faculty and other staff;

-           to create all necessary needed resource core  and use these for institutional planning with mid-term appraisal for quality improvement of the TEI;

-           to function as the nodal agency for networking community and its schools with the TEI and use their resources for improving and enriching its teacher education programme(s);

-           to  promote and strengthen action research and faculty research projects;

-           to organize on-campus and off-campus professional development activities and programmes for its faculty, faculty of sister TEIs and school teacheers in networked schools; and

-           to make its teacher education programme(s) more and more school-based, vibrant and collaborative between schools and the TEI.


1.4       Teacher Education : Current Status


            India has one of the largest systems of teacher education in the world. Besides the university departments of education and their affiliated colleges, government and government aided institutions, private and self-financing colleges and open universities are also engaged in teacher education. Though  most teacher education programmes are nearly identical yet their standard varies across institutions and universities. In certain areas, the supply of teachers far exceeds the demand while in others there is an acute shortage as qualified teachers which results in the appointment of under-qualified and unqualified persons. In the situation as it obtains manpower planning becomes an imperative.


            Teacher education programmes are essentially institution-based. Their students need to be exposed more and more to the realities of school and community. Internship, practice of teaching, practical activities and supplementary educational activities need to be better planned and organized more systematically. The curriculum, pedagogy and evaluation of teacher education programmes need to be made more objective as well as comprehensive.  Despite improvement of service conditions and perks, the profession is yet to attract the best talent.


            For preparing teacher educators, the most popular programme is M.Ed, though a few universities provide M.A. (Education).  The M.Ed. programme by and large is of general nature and does not train specialists in different areas. The same course meets the requirements of schools, teacher education institutions and administration, there being little differentiation . The standard of research, whether at M.Phil., Ph.D. or Project level deserves greater attention. It is distressing to observe that research in our universities and institutes is largely conducted for obtaining a degree and much of it is repetitive and incapable of improving theory or practice of teacher education or general education some times they are replicas of forum researches, the recent promotional rules of University Grants Commission  have tended to have a considerable adverse impact on the level of research.  The present system of teacher education needs to demonstrate greater sensitivity to its educational as well as social contexts. 


1.5       Teacher Education Curricula at Present


            During the last few decades teacher education curricula have come under severe criticism and their weaknesses have been highlighted.  Some educationists feel that they do not fully address the needs of contemporary Indian schools and society and they do not prepare teachers who can impart quality education in schools.  The principals of some public schools hold the view that there is hardly any difference between the performance of trained and untrained teachers because of outdated teacher education curricula.  These charges may appear to be exaggerated but  some of them compel us to rethink about the curricula and their transaction.


            Professionalism requires knowledge, authority, skills, commitment, competency, mission, ability to provide the exclusive expert service and adherence to a professional ethical code.    In the present curricula, a large number of activities -  theoretical and practical, have to be carried out and assiduously practised by prospective teachers for enhancing their professional competencies and commitments. Teacher education associations need to prescribe a professional code,  the violation of which may debar a teacher from serving in school.  It need not be emphasized that without increasing the duration of teacher education programmes, these targets cannot be achieved.  Academic and professional skills are not independent of each other.  Teacher education curricula have to integrate and blend them into a composite whole. The revamping of teacher education curricula has, thus, become a pressing need of the hour.  The slant has to be towards a visible shift from information-based to experience- based and from the traditional instruction domination to newer constructiveness orientation.


1.6       Scenario of Teacher Education


            India possess one of the largest systems of teacher education. Besides, the university departments of education and their affiliated colleges, government and aided institutions, private and self-financing colleges and open universities are also engaged in this venture. The programmes are almost identical but the standard varies. Certain institutions are being run with motives other than educational. In certain areas, the supply of teachers far exceeds the demand while in others there is acute shortage and unqualified teachers are working under different names. The manpower planning is practically absent in teacher education. The situation at the elementary level in certain states is comparable to international standards, where DIETs, CTEs and IASEs are making tangible impact on pre-and in-service teacher education. But the same cannot be said about the preparation of secondary, vocational and pre-school teachers.


            The programme of teacher education is institution based. The students are not exposed to the realities of school and community. Internship, practice of teaching, practical activities and supplementary educational activities are not paid proper attention. The curriculum, pedagogy and evaluation of teacher education needs improvement and radical transformation.  Despite the commendable improvement in service conditions and perks, the profession is yet to attract best brains.



 1.7      Teacher Education Curriculum at Present


            During the last two decades, the teacher education curricula  have received severe criticism and their weaknesses have been well exposed.  Some educationists and social activists call it insipid, irrelevant because they do not address the needs of contemporary Indian schools and society.  They do not prepare teachers who can impart quality education in our schools.  One often hears that there is little difference between the performance of trained and that of untrained teachers because of the outdated and defective curriculum.  To some extent, these charges may be somewhat; exaggerated often they seem to be correct. 


            Frequently criticized as being theoretical in its nature, the curriculum of teacher education is only partially theoretical. It is information loaded which are disconnected from each other.  Informations like this do not promote habit of thoughts and quality of mind. For disconnected informations can neither be converted into ‘theory’ nor can they form mind.  Utmost they can produce inert ideas which cannot be transformed into action and wisdom. There is the burning need to integrate and synthesise them for giving a disciplinary shape and change into well connected segment of knowledge, with its own specific area of serious study with an impendent methodology.  The curriculum framework of 1998 pointed out this weakness to an extent but the situation could not improve for reasons known to all.  There is the pressing need to integrate scattered informations for giving them the shape of a discipline capable of promoting educational theory and practice.


            It has to be emphasized that without increasing the duration of teacher education programmes, these targets cannot be achieved.  Academic and professional skills are not independent of each other.  Teacher Education curricula have to integrate and blend them into a composite whole like the curricula of medical sciences.  The reconstruction of teacher education curricula has, thus, become a pressing need of the hour.  It has to be transformed from information based to experience based.



Context, Concerns and Challenges of
Teacher Education


2.1       Introduction


            As an integral part of educational system, teacher education in India has to be responsive to socio-cultural ethos and national development. It does not consist of institution-based activities only. Its scope has broadened and its objectives have become more focussed during the last thirty years. Therefore, it is expected to engage itself in all endeavors of social and national reconstruction and regeneration, address itself to the social and educational problems, fulfill the expectations of the people, accelerate the process of nation building and assist in the realization of constitutional goals. It is true that considerable achievements have been made in all these directions. Teacher education, cannot remain indifferent to its context and major concerns.


2.2              Context of Teacher Education


            The Indian Constitution provides a long-term perspective on our educational system including that of teacher education. The founding fathers of Indian Constitution solemnly resolved ‘to constitute India into a sovereign, socialist, secular and democratic republic and to secure to all its citizens: justice-social, economic and political; liberty of thought, expression, faith, belief and worship, equality of status and opportunity; and to promote among them all fraternity assuring  the dignity of the individual and the integrity of the nation’. If teachers are to make positive contribution to the realization of the constitutional goals, pre-service and in-service education of teachers needs to give up its neutral  stance and commit itself to attaining these goals. To develop the skills and competencies of students for getting through the examination would not be enough. Teachers must understand the impart of the constitution in its true perspective in the light of Indian cultural ethos and integrate it with the philosophy of education. In the absence of such an attempt, transplantation of ideologies and ideas may prove counter-productive. The concepts used in the Constitution are essential politico-philosophical and socio-psychological visualisations and they permeate and transcend changing needs of the time. Teacher education curricula would accordingly need to be restructured. 


2.2.1    Socialism:


            Socialism, subsumes a variety of theories and movements and is the product of industrial revolution, humanism and  science.  It has been treated as an exclusively European phenomenon, though its genesis can be traced to Indian thought and literature. The central philosophy of socialism is to abolish an exploitative social order, bridge the gulf between the rich and the poor, ensure egalitarian justice and provide equal educational opportunity to all. But to treat socialism as a political method of social re-arrangement would tantamount to its distortion. It is a cultural movement, a movement for making a new man. For a long time, India's attempt at building a socialistic society was influenced by Western doctrines without synthesizing and blending them with the Indian thought, traditions and culture.


            Mere inclusion of the philosophy of socialism in teacher education curricula will not serve the purpose. It has to be harmonized with our cultural ethos and values. Ideas and ideologies like socialism are not the items of import; these have to emanate from our own soil and the realities of the Indian society. Teacher educators need to undertake research in this direction.


            Teachers and teacher educators need to appreciate that socialism is not utopian ideology; in this regard  it is a movement for transforming existing non-egalitarian and hierarchical social order in India and removing exploitation. It is, thus, a cultural movement which aims at the transformation  of human existence including people's values and beliefs. Education can play a vital role in this regard. There are certainly some constraints in building a socialistic society in India. These can, however, be overcome. Teacher education can convince prospective teachers and with their help the community that socialism is desirable for them, for the posterity and well-being of the nation.


 2.2.2   Secularism


            The Anglo-Saxon or European model of secularism, the outcome of the conflict between the church and the state and science and theology, does not appear very relevant to the Indian context.  In this country the state is secular but the vast majority of its citizens firmly believe in and practice religion. Besides most of the religions are pluralistic in India;  and each comprises of many sects.  Mere imitation of an alien model of secularism may cause conflict between the state and the polity. In our context, secularism implies the practice of equal respect for all religions of the country or ‘Sarva Dharma Sambhava’. Teachers and their educators  need to be made aware of this. They need to be convinced that secularism is not a political exigency of modern India. Its roots are very deep in its culture and tradition. Since ancient past, India has been largely secular. The plurality of religions and freedom of their practice was valued by the state and society. Secular treatment was  extended even to those who did not believe in and practice religion at all. The state by and large never interfered in religious or spiritual matters which were left to the individual's conscience. In promoting secular consciousness, teachers can play a very constructive role.


            Teacher educators and prospective teachers should emphasize the commonality  of religions and their ‘essence’. They encourage man in pursuit of truth, value, morality and peace. Teacher educators need to bring home to their students that superstition, bigotry, and dogmatism are distortions and hence unworthy of pursuit. Religion emphasises the practice of humanism. The teachers need to guard against the dangers of fundamentalism  which threatens Indian society at present.  The teacher has to convince students and community that if secular forces are weak, India cannot remain strong.


2.2.3    Democracy


            Democracy should not be confused with the representative government or rule of the majority. It is an antithesis of all kinds of tyrannical and despotic modes of governance. It presupposes separation of power, participation of people and building of consensus on national issues. It is a moral system that achieves balance between individual freedom and social compulsions. More than a political system, it is a way of life and for its success, its values should be reflected in day to day life of the people. Its main values are respect for the individual, freedom of thought and speech, respect for the rule of law, use of appropriate means for achieving goals of life, respect for dissent, tolerance and a sense of social responsibility. For its success, democracy needs enlightened citizens capable of defending their rights and performing their duties. Teachers and their educators need to practise democratic way of life in the school and present a model before their students. The social climate of the institution should reflect democratic norms and values. It should encourage students to imbibe democratic principles and culture.


            Education is a means of empowering people. Teacher educators and teachers should realize that the first necessary step towards this goal is to develop the student’s potential and promote his economic efficiency. Commitment to democratic values and their incorporation in life are essential. Only rich and meaningful education can achieve this. Teachers have to inculcate moral courage to stand up for the defence and practice of truth among their students. To tolerate injustice strikes at the roots of democracy. Education has to foster a sense of social responsibility and commitment, intellectual integrity and patriotic feelings among students. This will strengthen democracy in our country.


2.2.4    Justice


            Justice, liberty, equality and fraternity are interrelated and interdependent concepts and each of the four is essential for the realization of the others. Each one needs to be discussed separately. These concepts are considered to be the offshoot of French Revolution.  India has been practising these since long.


            Justice is one of the most controversial concepts in Eastern and Western thoughts.  However, Indian Constitution describes it in unambiguous terms. Justice implies fair play and absence of discrimination. Discrimination can be made on different basis - political, economic, social, legal, and so on. It may be based on birth, status, religion, education etc. To give people what they deserve in spite of their manifest and hidden differences is the essence of justice. To impart education to all according to their ability, age and aptitude is to ensure justice in education. To raise the status of the oppressed and the neglected sections of society by means of reservation is also the demand of social justice. So also, addressing the educational right of children and the workplace rights of workers, infected or affected by HIV/AIDS is the need of the hour. Educational system and the state should take positive action for this purpose. Teachers have two-fold responsibility in this regard: first, to provide meaningful education to children of different potentialities without any discrimination and second, to create a demand for social justice among students and through them in the society. An unjust society with privileged people having an edge cannot remain at peace or make progress. In teacher education institutions, justice as a social value has to be discussed and the consequences of all kinds of injustice need to be fully explained.


2.2.5    Liberty


            Liberty includes freedom of thought and expression and it has been considered important in the Constitution. It implies a national commitment to safeguard democracy against tyranny, dictatorship and despotism. It is a cherished goal of life. However, like justice and equality, freedom is also a difficult concept to understand. Freedom literally means absence of restriction on fulfilment  of desires.  But to be able to fulfill all desires is beyond the capacity of most human beings. In this sense, no one can be free because society and culture impose so many restrictions, both internal and external , on man.


            Liberty or freedom implies provision of such conditions as are essential for the full flowering of human personality. In this sense, it is essential for man’s development and building a civilized social order. But liberty is not a licence to do what one likes, it has to be used with restrictions imposed by the state, society and the individual.  The test of an enlightened person is how he uses his liberty but the test of a democratic state is how much freedom it allows to its citizens. Violation of this will lead to principle tyranny, confusion and chaos. Teachers and their educators have to inculcate necessary  moral values for proper use of freedom with self-imposed discipline. Freedom and discipline are inseparable like the two sides of a coin.


            Freedom has many facets and dimensions which need not be elaborated  here. But the relationship between freedom and knowledge has to be understood. An ignorant person may be free in his existence but he may not know its purpose. Freedom alone leaves one at the crossroads without pointing out to him where to go and what to do. Education has to develop the capabilities needed for its proper use. Freedom is negative in the sense that it provides opportunity for doing what one desires without giving him proper direction for its utilization. Only an education rich in democratic contents can do so. Teachers have to ponder over this problem. 


            Indian constitution assures freedom of mind, i.e. freedom of thought and expression. But freedom of expression can be meaningful  only if people have freedom of  thinking. Freedom of expression does not mean propagation of violence or encouragement of subversive ideas which can lead to anarchy.


            Real freedom allows expression of dissent but dissent has to be responsible and constructive. Liberty demands discussion and debate on public issues but no state or society can afford to permit endless discussion. The objective of debate and discussion is to throw light on all aspects of an issue and evolve a consensus. But once this consensus has been arrived at no one has the right to break it. It is the common decision of all and binding on every one. Students need to be properly educated about it.


            Freedom of thought and expression has always been reckoned valuable in India. Suppression of thought has been condemned by the wise. Our country is perhaps the only one in the world where people have not been persecuted for holding a particular kind of belief. Indian thought always appreciated and tolerated differences in opinion. It believed that difference of opinion facilitates a discovery of truth.


            Liberty is essential for many good things. In its absence no civil society can exist nor can new ideas or alternative systems be conceived.  But liberty alone is not enough. It requires many complementary virtues and the chief among these are tolerance, sense of responsibility, respect for the opinion of others and open mindedness or willingness to accept truth. It is sad that these virtues are gradually being eroded in the country. Our educational system needs to restore and nurture them.


            Freedom demands moral courage for expressing ideas that may be inconvenient  to the majority or authorities but to do so is its real test. This needs self-control and the capacity to make appropriate choices in the face of all opposition and public displeasure. It presupposes willingness to accept punishment for one's beliefs and actions. Freedom needs a qualitatively rich education otherwise it may defeat its very purpose. The essence of freedom is not the observance of a neutral posture in situation of social conflict. Such freedom paves the way for tyranny and despotism. Wide social disparity is also not conducive to the emergence of a free society. Teachers and educators need to convince and impress upon their students that in the absence of equality, the concept of freedom is an illusion.


2.2.6    Equality


            Equality sometimes described as ‘fairness in treatment’, is also a complex concept.  In order to understand equality, one must understand inequality. Inequality is of two kinds - natural  i.e. caused by nature and is man-made. For removing the natural, physical, genetic, biological and such other inequalities, not much can be done by teachers. On the other hand, man-made inequalities  is the creation of society and there are enough possibilities in this area. To take measures for reducing man-made inequalities the function of the state. Teacher education can nevertheless facilitate it and consolidate its gains.


            Equality demands that equals should be treated equally but to treat unequals equally leads to greater inequality.  Equality, therefore, is a question of proportion which means that the weaker and the handicapped, the oppressed and the downtrodden must be provided additional facilities and subsidies necessary for living a reasonably good life. Various kinds of reservation, and facilities which are being extended by the state to these sections of society are the desirable measures towards the building of a just and an egalitarian society.  Teachers have to convince the students in particular and society in general that the oppressed or the downtrodden will not tolerate such injustice for long. They have to nonscientist the people and break their ‘culture of silence ’  and also develop ‘critical awareness about social realities’ which are not divinely ordained but are man-made. This should be an important function of teacher education.


            Like liberty, equality also has many dimensions, chief among them being the equality of opportunity and status. Democracy recognizes the worth of the individual and his status is determined to his merit and social contribution. Education needs to stress this.


            Equality of opportunity can be achieved in many ways, chief among these is the equality of educational opportunity which again does not mean identical education or getting education of one’s own choice. Its essence is to provide for the development of talent according to age, ability and aptitude. It means that talent will not be allowed to remain undernourished or underdeveloped for lack of opportunities. To provide such opportunities is the function of the state and to build a climate in its favour is the function of the teaching community.


            Equality of educational opportunity involves three components:  access, retention, and achievement. The state has taken positive action with regard to access to education by launching certain schemes for making education available to the people but the goal of retention has not been achieved. Poverty, teacher's attitudes and some cultural and social constraints are responsible for poor retention. With regard to the quality, the situation is far more complex. The country has parallel systems of education for the rich and the poor. The state is gradually trying to reduce the quality-related differences in education by adopting certain improvement programmes. It is often suggested  that common school system may provide remedy for such a situation. Though the students may attend the same school, study the same curriculum and be taught by the same teacher and yet they may not achieve the same quality education unless other factors are also made equal. Equalization of life chances after schooling creates willingness to learn among children but life chances available to students coming from different sections of society are quite different. Teachers and educators can take definite action in this respect only if they understand  full implications of equality of educational opportunity. They may contribute to wielding  social  pressure and also assist the educationally deprived children in various ways.


            A narrow, rigid and common school curriculum may promote educational inequality, therefore school curriculum has to be broad based, flexible with minimum emphasis on commonality and supplemented by local and regional specificities. A dual system of education as it exists at present strengthens only the status quo. Teachers have to expose the weaknesses of this system. They need to develop scientific temper and critical thinking among students. A non-egalitarian society.  It divides people. The teacher as a social leader has to convince other that peace and prosperity depend us on equality which is essential for inculcating the feeling of fraternity.


2.2.7    Fraternity


            Fraternity is the extension and propagation of family feeling towards others and it calls for treating  them as brothers in spite of differences. In India, where people of many races, ethnic groups, religions, classes, castes and creeds live together, development of the feeling of fraternity and recognition of the worth of a person as an individual without any distinction is a worthwhile educational objective. It is the realization of the ideal of universal brotherhood of man, actualization of the spirit of the ‘Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam’ or what Delors Commission calls ‘Learning to live together’. However, there may be men who may still believe in their own superiority. By means of educational persuation, teachers can help change this mind-set and protect the dignity of individual.


2.2.8    Dignity of the Individual 


The individual occupies an important place in a democratic society.   He is its central point, its main focus. Democracy treats the individual as an end in itself. The state exists for his welfare, he is not a tool in its hands or a cog in the machine. The development of potentialities of the individual is the main goal of democratic education and society.  Man lives in society.  In his development, society and the state play a vital role. For his growth and development certain restrictions are imposed, otherwise the law of the jungle will prevail in society. In this regard, teacher education has-two fold responsibility : to protect the dignity of the individual, and to ensure his proper socialization.   


            History supports that growth of civilization and increase in the power of state are correlated phenomena. The state is now making inroads in many spheres of individual’s life. The demands of  ‘associative living’ presuppose certain restrictions on individual’s activities which however, do not hamper the growth of his unique personality. The state has to remove hindrances and obstacles which may interfere with the full flowering of his personality. It is the society and the state that benefit from the contribution of the individual information can contribute more to society if his potentiality is cultivated to its perfection. To standardize man is against the spirit of democracy. In teacher education institutions, the relationship between the individual, the society and the state needs to be properly explained and brought out and a suitable climate for the protection of individual’s dignity has to be evolved.


India is a member of the international community. It has adopted a planned model of social and economic development. A planned society makes the individual free in certain respects but restricts his freedom with regard to that of others. The purpose is to ensure dignified life for every individual. It is a question of formulating the golden rule of maintaining a reasonable balance or equilibrium between the two. Teacher education institutions need to seriously address this problem because congenial social climate and quality of life depend on it. Only those men and women who have developed their personality to the fullest and who are morally conscious of their responsibilities can build a strong nation. Teacher education cannot afford to neglect this responsibility. Indian thought favouring a happy synthesis between the dignity of the individual and his social obligations for building a strong nation. Developing awareness about  human rights and preserving and protecting them from violation are additional challenges before teachers and the educators.


2.2.9    National Integration


            To maintain the integrity and unity of the nation is an important constitutional commitment. India is a well-demarcated geographical entity and she has her distinct regional identity in  the South Asia. Its plurality and diversity can be observed by any one but within this plurality and diversity, there is a strong undercurrent of unity. Despite our regional, racial, linguistic, religious and social differences, our cultural unity is the real asset for national cohesion and integration. Undermining it will not serve any purpose. In addition to administrative and economic efforts, educational measures are also needed to strengthen national integration. Teachers and teacher educators can play a very constructive role in this regard. Despite certain basics and essentials which may be common for the whole country, regional autonomy and local specificities need to be reflected in teacher education curricula which must use the plurality of the country for strengthening national solidarity and social cohesion. A well planned and balanced approach for the preparation of teachers is the need of the hour.


            Teacher education curricula at all stages need to emphasise the cultural, political and economic unity of the country. The contribution of different racial, religious, social, linguistic and regional groups in developing India’s composite culture and nationhood need to be clearly discussed in teacher education institutions . Students need to be acquainted with the commonalities of different religions, languages, art, architecture, music, dance and drama. Misconceptions regarding other’s faiths and way of life need to be removed. Scientific temper should be developed among students for eliminating superstitions that have struck deep roots in the mind of the people. Exchange of teachers and their educators from one region to another may also to be arranged. The identity of minorities has to be preserved but teacher education should try to bring them into the mainstream of national life. Ignorance of different kinds which develop suspicion among individuals and groups need to be removed. Instead of group loyalty, patriotic feelings should be inculcated by teachers and teacher educators. In addition to the realization of the constitutional goals, teacher education has to take part in the efforts for solving of socio-economic problems and make its contributions to the arduous task of nation building.


2.3       Challenges Before Teacher Education


            Teacher education has to be responsive to the challenges faced by educational system in general and the school education in particular. Besides, teacher education is essentially a context-sensitive activity. It has to respond to vatrious changes in its social, political, economic as well as cultural contexts. Developments in science and technology during the last two decades have tranformed human life and the world. New technologies related to storage and communication of information have impacted the instructional process, given rise to e-learning and re-defined the concept of library and library service. Education that does not review and rethink its content and processes soon loses its relevance. These concerns give rise to  educational challenges i.e. challenges from within the educational system. The same are being described in detail in the following sections:


2.3.1    Social Challenges


            One of the major problems the country faces these days is the explosion of population which is multiplying in geometrical progression   while our resources are increasing at best in arithmetical progression. According to many the Malthusian forecasts are proving correct in the case of national development of India.  Its population growth is neutralizing the gains of development.  Increase in the number of non- earning people is posing a danger to social security. Increase in the number of out of school-child population is a challenge not being fully met by the education system.  Youth unrest and inter-generation conflict are now serious problems.  The quality of life in family and society is declining.  Unemployment has become a major concern for the state and its economy. 


            Indian society is pluralistic with underlying threads of unity.  Regional, racial, caste and community differences could not generate any serious conflict in our society.  However, due to various reasons this plurality or diversity which was a means of enriching the quality of life is now threatemed.  Social harmony and brotherhood, the feeling of associative living and neighbourhood have received a setback.  Erosion of social solidarity and cohesion can lead to a fractured society.  If unchecked, caste identities may lead to caste conflicts.  From a social category, caste has now become a potent political force. This is not a phenomenon confined only to Hindu society only.  In this context, peace education and social harmony should receive special attention. Curriculum Framework (1998) suggested certain concrete steps to be taken by teacher education institutions, but only a few could take effective measures  in this direction and much needs to be done in this regard.


            Communal tension is another social problem that calls for urgent attention.  In the past it was a rare urban phenomenon but it is now spreading to rural areas as well.  Various sub-groups of the same community and believers   of the same faith are developing suspicion and distrust about each other.  Religious or communal intolerance has increased and created conflicts between the followers of different faiths.  Teacher education needs to be more conscious of its responsibility in this regard.  Inter-faith harmony can be developed by teachers if they are aware of the essential unity of religions and are professionally prepared for promoting this important national cause.  It is a national issue and teacher education has to play an active role for promoting inter-faith harmony and support inter-faith dialogue with a view to inculcate saner attitudes.


            Teacher educators should objectively discuss and identify the causes of violence, terrorism and turmoil in their expository presentations.  Students should be convinced that use of violence, terrorism, subversive activities have no place in a civil society.  Teacher education needs to build a strong bulwark against these practices and ideologies. This is a real challenge for teacher education.


            The structure and functions of family in India which were stable for a very long time are now rapidly disintegrating due to various reasons, chief among these being  industrialization, migration, unemployment and modernization.  India’s joint family provided not only social security to and ensured welfare of the old, the invalid and the  unemployed but also served as an effective means of socialization, education, value inculcation and character formation.  But joint family system is fast breaking down and being replaced by nuclear family.  Besides, the influence of primary groups is rapidly declining and that of the secondary groups is increasing.  Family and caste vocations are no longer considered attractive by the vast majority.  The outcome of all these changes necessitate rethinking about the role of education, school and teachers and calls for additional responsibility on the part of the school.  Many functions which were formerly performed by parents, family and other primary groups will now have to be discharged by the school, chief among these being character formation, value inculcation, socialization and developing need-based vocational skills.  In addition to these, the teacher will have to ensure emotional satisfaction of children.  The school and the teacher will have to play the role of the family and meet the challenges caused by its destabilization. Education based on life skills has thus become imperative. This situation demands new commitments, additional competencies and professional skills among the teachers.  Not much has been done in this regard.  Professional education of teachers has to take a serious note of these problems. Consequently its theory and practice need to be enriched.


            To ensure social justice, to meet constitutional obligations, to uplift the condition of the oppressed and the exploited, specially the scheduled castes and tribes and other backward castes, the state is taking positive measures in education and employment.  It is true that some of the measures adopted by the state are not free from criticism as their advantages have been cornered by their well- informed and affluent sections. Nevertheless these measures promote social justice.  Teacher education has twin responsibilities in this regard: first, to evolve new pedagogies of education for children coming from neglected sections, and second, to develop positive attitudes among teachers for its success.


            To some extent, education has proved to be an alienating factor in Indian society by transforming the nature and character of the educated youth. Further, the media has also made its contribution in this process.  Even a literate person develops the tendency to get alienated from one's parents, family and his background.  His pattern of consumption changes.  Migration of youth from rural to urban areas gives rise to a number of problems e.g. unemployment, transport, accommodation, sanitation, health and hygiene, adjustment, acceptability, crime and corruption.  In the new set-up, the migrant becomes emotionally starved, and marginalized from his own group. Soon he becomes maladjusted in his social environment.  If timely action is not taken it becomes a serious social problem.  This problem demands the use of new strategies in education and teacher education has to provide effective remedy for this social menace.


            Despite all efforts, rural-urban disparity still persists in the country. Education has made only marginal contribution towards its elimination because its model is also urban and hence it fails to address the rural-urban divide.   The rural-urban disparity persists in every sphere. Larger the city, better its educational facilities; smaller the village, greater is its educational disadvantage.  Various administrative, economic and developmental measures adopted by the state have failed to make substantial achievement in this direction.  Teacher education programmes did not think it proper to confront this problem boldly.  Curriculum Framework (1998) had recommended certain steps in this regard. Teacher education  has not positively responded to this new responsibility more effective. 


            Addherence to non-indigenous model of development has contributed to a state of disharmony between man and nature.  It has disturbed old relationship between man and nature thereby creating serious environmental crisis and ecological imbalance.  Environmental degradation, depletion of natural resources, pollution, changes in  weather and climate, disturbance in the ozone layer, nuclear winter, increase in global warming  and of  nitrogen and carbon content in the air have caused serious pollution and are proving risky for men, animals and plants.  Large scale consumption of petrol, diesel and coal, use of fertilizers and pesticides, and also of water for industrial and agricultural purposes are causing water shortage and health hazards.  New diseases, the diseases of civilization,  the remedies for which have not yet been satisfactorily discovered, now threaten mankind. The effects of deforestation and diminishing grass-lands have created new challenges. Erosion of soil and replacement of organic manure by fertilizers and chemicals are proving harmful to the fertility of the land.  The age old harmony between man and nature, an essential feature of Indian culture and its way of life has been disturbed.  Man has pitted himself against nature and is trying to conquer it. He has  forgotten that nature can satisfy our needs, not our greed.  True that some steps have been taken for the protection of environment and for maintenance of ecological balance but they are far from being satisfactory.  This situation demands that (a) environmental education should be made an important and integral component of teacher education and (b) social and adult education should convey the message of ill outcomes of environmental degradation to students in particular and people in general.  It is noteworthy that it is the poor and the people living below the poverty line who suffer its consequences most.  There is a need for developing special educational courses on these aspects for teacher education.


            The traditional social order in India with its ascribed status, and role, is incapable of facing the challenges of science and technology, industrialization, westernization and modernization.  The behavioral pattern, age old social customs, inter-personal and inter-group relationships, values and norms of life are incapable of meeting the new challenges.  Traditional vocations are no longer attractive.  Some of these developments are really worth appreciation but they demand their critical appraisal as well.  The primary purpose of teacher education is undoubtedly to inculcate professional values and skills among teachers. But as intellectuals, teacher educators cannot be apathetic to what goes on in the society. To make constructive social criticism, teacher educators are now more conscious of its social responsibilities and obligations.  Teacher education curricula and their transactional modalities can help achieve this without much additional effort and inputs.  It involves greater relative emphasis, change in attitudes and social commitment of teacher educators.


2.3.2    Economic Challenges                                    


            Indian economy is primarily agricultural as seventy percent of its people work in this sector.  The attempts to bring about change in this sector are yet to achieve success.  Formerly, the country was importing food grains to feed its people but now the situation has changed.  We are not only self-sufficient in food but are also exporting it to other countries.  The use of modern machines, increased irrigation facilities, pesticides fertilizers, improved seeds etc. has succeeded in bringing about a food revolution.  Different kinds of land laws have induced the farmer to make investment in agriculture.  All India Radio and television have also helped the farmers. In spite of this progress farmers in some states die of starvation and some farmers commit suicide because they do not get proper price for their produce.


            In agriculture the law of diminishing returns operates. Chance factors and the mansoon play important roles.  Erosion of fertile soil due to various reasons, scarcity and of rains, absence of  facilities for storage  of water and irrigation are other problems the country faces now.  New crops demand more water and fertilizer, but beyond a limit, this decreases the fertility of land.   The farmers are also not aware of the various ways of avoiding different types of calamity. Subsidiary and allied vocations like fishery, dairy, horticulture, flori-culture, piggery, etc. are not being given proper attention due to non-availability of qualified teachers for vocational education.  In this context the preparation of vocational teachers, specially for new vocations related to agriculture needs to be given top priority.  Teacher educators in these subjects are not available as qualified persons of these trades look more for lucrative avenues.


            During the last two decades the ‘compulsions of a backward economy’ and the "demands of a developing economy" have become self-evident.  Economic growth is not a question of ideologies and models.  Ideology alone cannot increase production as it is not transferable into goods and services.  Ideology is more helpful in the distribution of gains but it cannot become a substitute for production which demands certain managerial skills, economic and technical inputs, spirit of entrepreneurship a skilled work force etc.  There is a need for developing greater awareness about grass-roots problems through education. Economics of education and political economy of education can be important constituents of teacher education. Teacher educators need to explore how educational planning and economic planning can be harmonised with one another.


            Poverty eradication in India demands state action, legislation and restructuring of society.  But these measures alone are not enough.    There is a need to develop critical awareness about social reality in teacher education.  For this in addition to providing vocational and employment-oriented education, theoretical courses of teacher education may need to be restructured.


2.3.3    Political Challenges


Educational institutions and schools are supposed to be the nurseries of democracy.  They are the places where democratic values are expected to be practised.   The quality of politics depends on the quality of the citizens who are expected to perform political obligations and duties and have commitment towards the self, the family, the community, the nation and manking.  It is true that in an ideal situation, the conflict between these obligations and commitments may not arise.  But such conditions may not always exist and a conflict between them may arise.  Under such circumstances, the golden rule for the citizen implies work for the greatest good of the greatest number.  It is the duty of teacher education to develop skills related to social and political life and to inculcate necessary democratic values among prospective teachers for this purpose.


2.3.4    Cultural Challenges


            Indian culture is basically a composite entity. It has been enriched by all ethnic groups in the country. Education is the process of transmission, transformation, assimilation and qualitative enrichment of cultural heritage.  Indian culture maintains a historic continuity with a marked characteristic of maintaining a happy balance between change and stability, tradition and modernity, unity and diversity. Teacher education needs to promote this process. Teacher education  needs to develop a sense of pride among teachers in their composite culture, preserve its identity, take precaution against superficiality , guard the youth against rootlessness and alienation, make them modern in their outlook and yet preserve their distinctive Indianness.  To make prospective teachers aware of India’s contribution to the world culture is an important role of education. 


 The weakening of cultural content of education along with certain other influences has witnessed a trend towards large scale value erosion in our society.  It has generated inter-generational conflict, weakened the moral fabric of society and increased permissive behavior, specially among the educated youth.  Even rural and tribal youth have not remained unaffected by it.  Value conflicts of various type are widely prevalent in our society.  This affects the quality of life of our people.  Value inculcation has become an important function of education and teachers have to shoulder this responsibility, and synthesize the values of our composite culture and modernity.   The diminishing influence of family and other primary groups calls for the use of alternative educational approaches.  Education now needs to collaborate with other agencies.   Value inculcation has, therefore,  to be integrated with all its activities: curricular and co-curricular.


2.3.5    Challenges from Science and Technology


            Scientific and technological revolution, specially in transport and communication, medicine and surgery, information and communication technology, cybernetics, genetics, bio-technology and life sciences like  bio-physics and bio-chemistry, nuclear science and quantum mechanics has opened new vistas for man. Science and technology have transformed every thing.  The world has become interdependent and is turning gradually into a global village. Now one has to think globally and act locally.  The economy of scarcity has been transformed into economy of plenty, but even then poverty has not been eradicated. The traditional concepts of matter and energy, relationship between man and nature, theological beliefs and practices, superstition and obscurantistc practices have changed.  Machines are replacing men.  The process of production is no longer arduous and tiresome.  Material comforts and amenities of life are made available to all who can pay for them. But man has become spiritually poorer and his privacy has shrunk.   Scientific and technological education, specially in the information and communication technology has become necessary if India is to march with the world and make progress in every sphere.  Educational programmes for teachers have not made full use of these developments.  But there is an other side of the picture also.  Science and superstition  are simultaneously flourishing in Indian society because adequate emphasis is not being laid on the development of scientific attitude and scientific temper of mind.  Its application to anachronistic social and cultural contents is not being given due consideration.  Teacher education has to take serious note of the situation and evolve effective measures; otherwise the gains achieved so far may be neutralized or even negatived.


            The effects of science and technology and advances in allied disciplines are not proving wholly beneficial to man and society.  Society has become interdependent but family and other primary groups have lost their importance.  Man has become a prisoner of market forces of and advertisement.  His capacity to choose has diminished.  His freedom has been curtailed. Possibilities of regimentation and standardization of thought and indoctrination have tremendously increased.  The cultural gap between scientists and non-scientists has widened.  The harmony between man and nature has received a setback.  Morality and values have become its worst casuality.  Material culture is weakening spiritual culture.  All these require reconsideration of scientific policy.  If the human civilization is to survive and quality of life is to be assured, modern science needs to re-think itself and re-frame its priorities.


            The impact of science and technology, information and communication technology and genetic engineering on society needs to be fully discussed in teacher education institutions. Scientific temper has to be developed and its application for the solution of problems of life has to be encouraged.  Its potentialities for making a humane social order need to be emphasized, Its teaching can promote values like impartiality, integrity, intellectual honesty, optimism, fellow-feeling, tolerance and humanitarianism.  All these should figure prominently as valued goals and objectives of teacher education.


2.3.6    Educational Challenges


            Teacher education has to support the efforts for the solution of problems of education of the country. These problems can be divided into two categories : problems of education as a whole with special reference to school education and problems of teacher education itself The latter includes general problems as well those caused by school education curricula which put the responsibility of its implementation on teachers.


            The education system now faces challenges from neo-colonialism which is not the same as its traditional counterpart.  It is economic, ideological and cultural.  If not checked, it will lead to further 'educational divide'.  Teacher education has to be responsible to this.  It has to understand its many dimensional consequences and take appropriate safeguards against it.


            The country has to fulfill its constitutional commitment of providing universal elementary education to all and achieve the obliteration of  illiteracy. Education is a fundamental right.  To meet this obligation many programmes have been initiated.  For achieving the target, the country needs well qualified and properly trained teachers.  The system has to prepare them and also train underqualified teachers professionally.


            Increase in the population of school going children, rising aspirations of the people and their greater desire for more useful knowledge, complete with explosion of knowledge and techniques for imparting knowledge have emerged as new challenges to teacher education.  The possibility of acquiring knowledge from sources other than the teacher, books and from outside educational institutions has increased tremendously.  The educational system has to respond  in full measure to this development. To impart more knowledge within a shorter period entails proper structuring of knowledge and use of new transactional strategies including ICT resources. Students should be encouraged to pursue independent learning and make use of the skills of ‘learning to learn’. In this new paradigm students will approach teachers for getting information about the sources of knowledge rather than knowledge itself.  In the emerging context the possibility of teachers and educators becoming outdated and professionally less effective has increased.  Constant re-education and inservice programmes for teachers and their educators have become the need of the day.


            Teacher education institutions need to forge stronger links with the system of education and also with the community they serve. In very specific terms these linkages may take the form of (a) linkages between TEIs & other university departments (b) linkages between sister TEIs, (c) linkages with school education system & school clusters and (d) linkages with community and its resources.  Community linked teacher education, reasearch and extension programmes need to be undertaken.  The experts from community, if available, may be invited by teacher education institutions and teachers and educators may be encouraged to participate in the activities of the community and vice-versa.


            Education requires interdisciplinary approach.  For its enrichment it needs cross fertilization and active support from allied subjects, and teacher education is no exception to this. Researches and latest findings from anatomy, physiology, neuro-sciences, medicine, bio-physics, bio-chemistry etc. are sure to enrich its courses of psychology.  Utilization of the potentialities of journalism, mass media and information and communication technology can certainly help in improving the quality of classroom transaction.  Sociology, and social and cultural anthropology can help in developing needbased pedagogies.  Economics and management science can add value and meaning to the courses of educational finance, economics of education, educational planning, management, administration and supervision.  There is a need to harness inputs from these areas to courses of education for teachers.  By doing so the theoretical and practical component of teacher education will certainly become more meaningful and contemporary. Alternative programmes with increased duration may be tried out for qualitative improvement of teacher education.


            Children process information, acquire knowledge and learn in a cultural context, and their personalities and mental make-up are influenced by  cultural factors.  There are differences in the levels of aspiration and perception of children  coming from a metropolis and of those from a tribal background.  They may interpret the same event or concept differently according to their socio-cultural backgrounds.  Cultural specificity,  therefore needs to be utilized  to improve children's learning. Since there is no uniform process of learning and forming concepts, acquisition of values, morality and character and personality development, there is a need for teachers and educators to understand how cultural traditions and factors outside the school affect  pedagogical practices.  To ignore these factors can adversely affect educational and learning outcomes.  To evolve culture-specific pedagogy and empower the teachers to do so in their specific context becomes an important function of teacher education.


Culture-specific pedagogy is influenced by many tangible and intangible factors operating in society.  Chief among these  are the practices of child rearing in the family and the community, well-established methods of teaching and learning, indigenous educational  practices and the ideas of thinkers and educationists of the society.  India provides valuable opportunity for blending all these together for evolving culture- specific pedagogy not only because it has preserved a rich cultural heritage, a large variety of educational practices outside the school in different regions but also because it has its own thinking on matters pertaining to education.  The thought and practices of Indian educationists can be useful for reconstructing a need-based indigenous, national and culture specific pedagogies. 


            Considerable research has been carried out in teacher education, and some of its findings relevant to Indian context can help in the development of  quality teacher education programmes. Mass copying and leakage of question papers and unruly behavior of students during and after examinations demand that teachers should evolve a more reliable and continuous evaluation system.  Misconceptions about decentralization of education with special reference to Panchayati Raj need to be removed from the minds of the teachers.  Mismatch in the supply and demand of teachers in certain sectors and states demand need-based manpower planning.  Teacher education has to convince the state about it.  Special attention needs to be paid to inculcating professionalism, its values and skills and to improve teacher's work culture. 


In India, need-based selective approach has to be adopted by teacher education.  Blind adaptation of  alien experiments may prove counter- productive and wastage of precious resources.  The guiding principle in this respect has to be the concept of ‘working with community’ and in this age of international competition, teacher education should not lag behind.


            In India, there exist a large number of poor, exploited, neglected children, first generation learners, dalits and people living below the poverty line who constitute the largest section of out-of-school child population. They constitute special educational groups.  The urban and the upper middle class model of education may not help them much.  The language which the teacher uses, the examples which he cites and the courses he is required to teach may not be most appropriate for them.  They may not comprehend the texts and concepts properly as they do not form a part of their experience and background and are quite unfamiliar to them.  It may not be possible to provide separate teacher education prgrammes to teachers for teaching such children for obvious reasons.  But special pedagogical strategies to teach such students can be developed which may fulfil the needs of such students without  unduly straining the system. In-service teacher education programme which plug  the gaps in pre-service education of the teachers can prove quite effective in this regard.


            Modern education, throughout the world, accords special attention to the development of mind. But over-emphasis on the cultivation of mental faculties ignoring the development of heart and spirit has its own drawbacks. It often leads to skepticism as well as cynicism. Teacher education cannot ignore spiritual and emotional aspects of human personality. An integrated human being can be developed only if one's mind, body and spirit develop harmoniously. Teacher education curricula should, therefore, cater to integrated development of learner's personality


            Taking pride in being a part of the nation and enriching national identity should be a prized goal of an educational system. Teachers and educators should therefore, inculcate these feelings among students ensuring that it does not come into conflict with love of humanity.


2.4       Emerging Concerns and Teacher Education


            The context of and challenges to teacher education have been discussed in the preceding pages. In addition to these, there are a few other emerging concerns  which teacher education cannot afford to ignore. The national curriculum framework for school education (2000) and that of 2005 have certain expectations from teacher education which have been well articulated in these documents. Information and communication technology (ICT),  open learning systems, value education, development of life skills, healthy, and productive living, integration of subjects and three language formula are the major concerns of these documents


            Valuable contributions have already been made by information and communication technology as an aid to teaching and learning within school and outside it . The opportunities for acquiring information and life-long learning have multiplied. A knowledge society is now taking shape in our country. It should, however, not remain an urban or metropolitan phenomenon or a privilege of the rich. Information and learning experiences acquired through ICT need to be interconnected and transformed into knowledge.  If  ICT  is not utilized as an aid to the teacher, it may create alienation between the teacher and the taught and the gaps between the schools managed by the rich for affluent children and the state school where children from poor  families and rural areas study can widen. A situation like this may create a national divide. Hence the necessity to devise need-based, affordable and 'alternative' but ‘appropriate’ ICT and plan its programmes which are rich in cultural and educational values. Teacher educators involved in the preparation of educational packages through ICT  may have to exercise constant vigil about its intelligent and expedient use.  In a knowledge society, students need to be empowered to reconstruct knowledge and utilise it when the situation demands.


            Three language formula has been accepted by our nation.  Hindi, regional languages, certain foreign languages, Sanskrit, Urdu etc. have been included in this formula. Languages are to be taught for developing communication skills, literary taste and thinking skills. Teacher educators need to promote saner attitude towards language and literature, check the linguistic chauvinism and emphasize thier commonality across languages and the manner in which they influence the composite culture of the country and also each other.


            There is a need to exercise proper caution in teaching of languages. Classical, modern, foreign and regional languages are taught for developing skills of communication and thinking. While teaching them, the teacher has to be guided by certain considerations. Its objective should not  be the promotion of linguistic chauvinism. The beauty of language and literature has to be emphasized in comparative perspective. Most of the languages have not developed in isolation but have influenced one another. Language has always been used to develop an awareness among the people and to help them break their silence. Teacher educators need to keep in mind the unifying and awakening potentiality of language and literature.


            In case there are certain components related to the lives of great religious leaders, and their teachings in school curriculum, the teachers need to be very careful in taking an impartial view emphasizing their commonality and contribution to mankind for promoting the spirit of equal respect for all religions. Such components should help develop values and morality among students.


            Open learning system has developed as a parallel system of education. Its potentialities for improving knowledge, professional skills and competencies cannot be underrated. For this, suitable  reading materials, short term programmes and sandwich courses need to be developed in which the role of teacher educators can hardly be ever emphasized.


            The concept of social sciences and sciences at the elementary and the secondary stages of education has been given a new thrust. In place of teaching different subjects in these areas, integrated approach has been suggested for evolving holistic approach towards social life and natural phenomena. Students are expected to form a rational view about the reality for which integration of subjects as well adoption of new transactional strategies need to be evolved.


            India is passing through a period of an all-pervasive change. Science, technology and information and communication technology are transforming the traditional way of  life and making inroads into beliefs, values and norms. In spite of their desirable contributions, science, technology, industrialization, westernization and modernity are creating considerable social instability and value crisis. The impact of value crisis, specially among the educated youth, is a matter of grave concern. Teacher education needs to lay adequate stress on developing life skills and concentrate its efforts on inculcation and restoration of values as its integral component.


            Proper attention has to be paid to art, health and physical education in teacher education curricula. The primary objective of art education is to develop aesthetic sensibility. Inculcation of artistic attitude and aesthetic sensibility taste among children so essential for enhancement of quality of life can prove an antidote to vulgarization of Yogic education can be integrated with health and physical education for improving both physical health as well as mental health. It can check mental diseases, which are a gift of modern civilization. The inclusion of this component in teacher education can augment power of concentration and also inculcate many other virtues and capabilities among children.


Development of life skills and capacity for productive and healthy living among children should engage the attention of teachers and teacher educators. In the contemporary context, despite prosperity and abundance of amenities of life, man is not able to lead a happy and healthy life because he has forgotten the art of living. His relationship with man and nature and also with himself has been disturbed because of his attitude and philosophy of life. It is necessary for man to keep his desires and temptations within reasonable limits and keep attuned to search for higher values in life. Teacher education needs to make serious effort for achieving these by developing students' multifaceted personalities and inspiring them to achieve higher goals.


            It is true that science and technology have made our future uncertain. Making any prediction about it has become difficult and risky. But despite this, certain trends can obviously be visualised. In days ahead, the world will change more rapidly and nothing will remain stable. The consequences of social instability will be so serious that they cannot be easily ignored as they will affect the structure and functioning of society. After a decade or so, students and teachers will find themselves in an unfamiliar world. The complexion of knowledge society where knowledge will be generated for utilitarian purposes only will be quite different from what it is at present. Information technology will transform the nature of learning. Many of the established practices which provide social solidarity and stability will get transformed. The conflict between material and spiritual culture, tradition and modernity, religiosity and fundamentalism will be accelerated. Affluence will come into conflict with scarcity. Material culture will flourish but spiritual culture will get impoverished. Much of what students and teachers have learnt at present will become obsolete. There will be a pressing need for constant re-education. Desires will multiply but means to satisfy them will not. Mental diseases will increase and human existence will become uneasy. Under these circumstances teacher education has to formulate its programmes anticipating the needs of future. 


            To summarise, teacher education programmes have also to translate into reality the message of Delors Commission through its curricula at all levels for strengthening the four pillars of learning viz.,  ‘Learning to know’, ‘Learning to do’, ‘Learning to live together and ‘Learning to be’. Prospective teachers will need to be empowered by teacher education for developing these skills among themselves and their students. Integration of these four guiding principles in teacher education curricula is essential for serving the concerns of knowledge society.



Pre-service Teacher Education

 3.1       Introduction


India has now accepted a ten years general school system, divided into three stages: pre-school education, elementary education and secondary education. There is further a provision for two year diversified senior secondary education with the subject oriented and displiniary approach. The maturity level and psycho-social make-up of the students and curriculum requirements demand separate teacher education programmes for all the stages of the school education.


3.2       Teacher Education for Early Childhood Care and Education


            Pre-primary stage is not the stage for formal education. Literacy should not be the concern at this level though it prepares children for elementary schools. Learning at this stage may be characterized by group activities, play way techniques, language and, number games and activities directed to promote socialization and environmental awareness among children and help them in the process of attaining physical, mental and emotional maturity. Approaches in developing life skills and the formation of good habits and living togetherness need to be addressed with great care. To ensure happy and healthy childhood by means of varied activities have to be the main focus. The specific objectives for teacher education at this stage may be the following :-

-           To prepare teachers for helping physical, mental, social, emotional, aesthetic and linguistic development of children by means of individual and group activities.

-           To impart them relevant knowledge of child psychology, basics of cultural anthropology, sociology, Indian heritage and child’s environment.

-           To develop among them the capacity and desire for obtaining parental cooperation and establish coordination with the agencies working in similar areas.

-           To empower them to organise educational games and supplementary activities for children.

-           To arrange field trips for nature study and train their power of observation and appreciation.

-           To enable them to prepare, select and use different kinds of materials at low cost with a focus on sensory and motor development of children.

-           To empower them to develop self-concept, self-esteem and the art of self-expression and sense of discrimination and appreciation among the children.

-           To enable them to develop environmental awareness among children.

-           To empower them to inculcate the art of living good life.


Curriculum: For the curriculum development for teachers at this stage a flexible approach taking into account the local conditions needs to be adopted. Nevertheless, certain components appear to be desirable, and these include Emerging Indian Society, Indian Cultural Heritage with Regional/Local specificity, Indian Philosophy and Educational Practices, Child Psychology, Social Anthropology, Child rearing Practices, Process of Physical, Mental, Emotional, Aesthetic, Language, Social and Moral Development, Habit formation, Self-expression, Neuromuscular Coordination, Health and Hygience and Art of observation and Nature study etc. The development of creative activities dance, drama, music including group songs, story telling, clay modeling, physical exercises including yogic postures, arrangement of educational games, field work, contact with local community, utilization of locally available materials, toys and block making, paper and pencil work and inclusive education will form a part of practical work. Provision for intensive internship programme will have to be made in realistic situations. The suggested curriculum frame with suitable modification may be adopted. 



Curriculum Framework for Teachers of
Early Childhood Care and Education


Duration : 2 years (4 Semesters)


Courses of Study


A.        Theoretical


-           ECCE :  Prevelant Practices and Status in India,

-           Emerging Indian Society with regional specificities and their bearings on early childhood education,

-           Child Development,

-           Philosophy and Social/Cultural Anthropology for Teachers of ECCE,

-           ECCE : In other countries – Developed and Developing both ( emphasis on practices and problems ) along with their philosophies and solutions),

-           Environmental Education,

-           Health, Hygiene, life skills  and physical education,

-           Use of ICT in teaching and games for ECCE.,

-           Nutrition and Balanced Diet,

-           Management, Finance and Planning of ECCE,

-           Safety Education and Disaster Management,

-           Peace education and Social Harmony,

-           Evaluation in ECCE,

-           Inclusive Education.

(Value and Moral Education would form an integral component of all the courses and activities).


B.         Practical Activities: 


-           Internship at an ECCE Centre for one semester,

-           Interaction with agencies working in this field and preparation of reports on their functions,

-           Formulation of Action Research projects and their implementation, Field Work and Case Studies,

-           Physical Education, Games & Sports,

-           Disaster Management and safety education,

-           Community Interaction,

-           Environment Protection,

-           Drawing and Painting,

-           Clay Work & Clay Modeling,

-           Paper and Pencil Work,

-           Language and number games,

-           Play and games,

-           Scouting and Girl Guiding,

-           Local Festivals,

-           Visit to Local Historical Places,

-           Block Making and Pasting,

-           Rhythmic Exercises,

-           Yogic Exercises,

-           Activities for self-expression, observation, and appreciation,

-           Cleanliness,

            Any other need based and supplementary educational activities.


Curriculum Transaction :    The basic principle for transacting curriculum at this stage is to empower prospective teachers to use play way method at the term-end level and make learning joyful for which no rigid procedures need to be adopted. Different techniques will have to be employed to ensure this end. Teacher educators are expected to impart the competencies for the practical use of different aids, take pupil teachers out of the college and undertake guided observation of human behaviour and natural phenomena and teach them how to acquire educative experiences from such situations. Need based cultural pedagogy has to be adopted. Community survey and field work to acquaint prospective teachers with the ground reality of students will have to be arranged. Theoretical knowledge base relevant to the job performance may be developed. Problem solving method may be treated as an inevitable strategy for the effective curriculum transaction. Seminars, workshops, self-study, independent learning, group discussion in addition to lectures be arranged. Internship programme of substantial duration for learning actual techniques and acquiring real and meaningful experiences of pre-school education can be arranged under the guidance of teacher educators, pre-school teachers and other agencies including N.G.Os working in the area.


Evaluation :  Evaluation of teachers for ECCE should be by and large formative, but summative and continuous evaluation should also be stressed. Records and cumulative charts indicating progress of pupil teachers may be prepared. Self-assessment by each student teacher and also at the level of peers have to be encouraged. Annual examination should not be the only basis for evaluation. Instead of awarding marks at the term-end level, it will be desirable to go in for a grading system.


3.3       Teacher Education for Elementary Schools


            Elementary education which makes a significant contribution to national development occupies a crucial position in the system of education. It admits mainly the children coming after completing pre-school education, children from educated families, the first generation learners and from the neglected and oppressed sections of the society. It is the nursery of citizenship, value inculcation, development of appropriate behaviour and life skills. The impressions acquired during this stage often continue through out the life. Preparation of teachers for this stage implies development of the following competencies and capabilities:

-           To facilitate formal learning and education

-           To act as a classroom organiser

-           To mobilize, manage and use educational resources.

-           To undertake/adopt innovative practices

-           To offer guidance to students and parents.

-           To develop and use teaching materials

-           To plan and organize supplementary educational activities.

-           To work with community and act as leaders

-           To evaluate the performance of pupils.


In the light of these required capabilities and competencies from the teachers of this stage, the following may be the objectives of teacher education at the elementary level:


-           to make the teachers aware of the nature, purpose, problems and issues of elementary education,

-           to enable them to understand the nature and maturity of children for imparting education and to ensure their many sided development,

-           to enable them to manage and mobilise community resources for the school and teaching,

-           to empower pupil teachers to impart and organize instruction of unified and integrated subjects, their nature and purpose in the new educational and social context,

-           to develop holistic approach for understanding and solving  the problems of life,

-           to create environmental awareness with the intent of  promoting its protection/preservation,

-           to empower them to evolve need based community specific and child centred pedagogy including indigenous learning systems,

-           to promote among them the desire, taste and capacity for life- long learning and make them aware of latest developments in their areas and the needed transactional skills,

-           to make them understand/appreciate the advantages of ICT and empower them to use the same in the class,

-           to give an elementary knowledge of inclusive, physical, yogic, health and citizenship education in the common school system,

-           to prepare them to use the latest constructivist pedagogy and evaluation techniques and

-           to enable them to impart value education, life skills education, work education and feel their responsibility towards the education of neglected sections of society including those affected by diseases and deprivation of various forms.


Curriculum : The curriculum of elementary school teacher education has to be developed in the light of the following :


-           objectives of elementary education,

-           the curriculum of school education and its transactional and evaluation techniques for their implementation,

-           regional and local specificities  and  national requirement,

-           upgradation of the standard of knowledge and professional skills of teachers at elementary school stage.


The curriculum of teacher education at this stage has to be flexible and responsive to the national, regional and local reality contexts. The theoretical and practical contents should be properly correlated. The components of child psychology, psychology of teaching and learning, elementary cultural anthropology, Indian cultural heritage and philosophy, essential unity of religion, history, problems and status of elementary education, integrated approach to curriculum transaction and evaluation techniques, use of ICT, elementary and need based yogic exercises and physical education, organization of school, group and individual educational activities, working with community and work education, aesthetic education, pedagogy of school subjects, art of productive and happy living, building of educational climate, organization of field trips for educational activities, protection of environment, inclusive education, emerging Indian society and educational trends, remedial teaching, content of elementary education etc. need to be given prominent place.


            For imparting practical experiences, internship of substantial duration, practice teaching of curriculum transaction, observation of model lessons, preparation of school records, beautification of schools, and implementation of action research should be included in the practice of education. Supervision of practical activities would be the joint responsibility of the schools and colleges of teacher education. The following suggested curriculum frame may be suitably adopted for this purpose.


Curriculum Framework for Elementary School
Teacher Education


Duration :  2 years (4 Semesters)




-           Principles, Status, Issues and Problems of Elementary Education,

-           Emerging Indian Society (Regional Specifity be emphasized) & Elementary    Education,

-           Philosophy of Elementary Education – Main trends in the Indian and Western context,

-           Psychology  of teaching and learning of Elementary School Child,

-           Sociology of Education and Cultural Anthropology for elemantary school teacher,

-           Integrated Approach to Teaching in the Elementary Schools,

-           Peace education and Social Harmony

-           Environmental Education,

-           Elementary Education in other countries,

-           ICT in Elementary School,

-           Health, hygience, life skills and physical education,

-           Nutrition and balance of diet,

-           Safety Education and Disaster Management,

-           Management, Finance and Planning of Elementary Education, 

-           Teaching of Mother tounge and regional language,

-           Evaluation in elementary education,

-           Guidance & Counseling,

-           Aesthetic Education,

-           Inclusive education,

-           Life skill education,

-           Pedagogical analysis of school subjects,

            Any other need based programme.


Practical Activities


-           Internship at Elementary School for a duration of one semester,

-           Communication Skills – Mother Tongue and Regional language and Foreign language,

-           Delivering of 60 supervised lessons,

-           Plantation and water harvesting,

-           Energy harvesting,

-           Soil & grassland management,

-           Celebration of local festivals,

-           Work Experience,

-           Organisation of Games and Sports,

-           Community Interaction,

-           Disaster Management and safety education,

-           Scouting & Girl Guiding,

-           Action Research, Case Study, Field Work,

-           Activities for Self-Expression,

-           Visit to Local fairs & historical sites,

-           Nature Study,

-           Beautification of School,

-           Cleanliness and personal hygine of Student,

-           Evaluation of Answer Scripts,

-           Preparation of Tests to measure cognitive and non-cognitive abilities – Diagnostic tests and Remedial teaching,

-           Preparation of Exam Results,

-           Aesthetic Education,

-           Maintance of school and student records

            Any other need based activity,



Evaluation: The prospective teachers should be made aware of new evaluation techniques and grading system. Its purpose should be to improve performance and develop the capacity for self-evaluation. The present mixture of  internal and external evaluation is to be replaced by internal evaluation only in course of time. The whole concentration should be on bringing self-improvement in the development of professional competency and performance competencies. Evalution has to be formative, summative and continuous as well as comprehensive.


3.4       Teacher Education for Secondary Schools


Secondary education occupies a very critical place in education, not only because the children become more mature and develop additional psychological characteristics but also because of its special educational functions. The curriculum for this stage becomes enriched and stands in the mid-way of elementary and senior secondary schools. Further it is an independent stage of education for the majority of students who prefer to enter into life. The teachers are expected to play somewhat different role and prepare students for two fold responsibilities-to cater the needs of students for life and prepare them for senior secondary schools. But the major consideration which demands the attention of teacher educators is to maintain the continuity of integrated approach in curriculum development and its transactional strategies and prepare students for subject centered approach in future. Since teachers at secondary  stages have to deal with adolescents they must understand their problems and offer solutions to them including their social transformation and nurturing of their uniqueness. This transformation requires a teacher education programme rich in content to realize the following objectives :


-           to maintain the continuity of elementary education and to prepare students for the study of diversified courses and appropriate selection of subjects at the senior secondary stage,

-           To empower the prospective teachers to adopt disciplinary approach in teaching and to develop among students interest in such studies,

-           To enable them to understand the implications of liberalization, privatization, globalization (LPG) free market, W.T.O. and Outsourcing etc. on education and adopt precautionary measures against their unsound effects.

-           To train them in the use of ICT, its advantages, disadvantages and safegauards,

-           To curtail the educational and cultural gap between the rich and the poor and the schools meant for them by adopting suitable educational approaches,

-           To develop among the prospective teachers love for Indian culture, and its contribution to the world and to inculcate a sense of national pride and identity,

-           To enable them to develop the teaching competencies and performance skills for the subjects they have to teach, using appropriate aids including ICT, organize supplementary educational activities and elicit community cooperation,

-           To empower student teachers not only to understand the nature of subjects but also the unity and integrity of knowledge,

-           To prepare them for the development of personality, inculcation of values, fostering the spirit of citizenship and patriotic feeling,

-           To create among them the awareness of environmental protection and need to maintain an ecological balance,

-           To enable students to acquire, construct, process and utilize knowledge as per the requirement of circumstances,

-           To help them to grasp the main thrust of the curriculum and develop appropriate transactional and evaluational  strategies for the same,

-           To enable them to integrate yogic, health, physical, aesthetic and inclusive education with other educational activities,

-           To enable the prospective teachers to orient and sensitize the students with care and caution about Life Skill education, HIV/AIDS preventive education, reproductive health, etc.,

-           To develop among them the capacity for undertaking action research for improving the quality of education, for the solution of its problems and to evolve the culture specific and community oriented pedagogy,

-           To help them evolve happy and healthy school and community relationship and promote interest in life long learning,

-         To acquaint them with Indian nation's distinctive character of ‘unity in diversity’ and adopt curriculum development practices to strengthen them,


            Similarly a few more objectives may be formulated in consonance  with the emerging trends in the context of local to global scenario.


Curriculum: The curriculum for the secondary school teacher education course has to be developed keeping in view the concerns articulated hereunder :


-           objectives of secondary education/teacher education,

-           updated curricular content with emphasis on competencies and values,

-           appreciation of the regional conditions and the main stream of nation’s life,

-           necessity to improve the standard and quality of school education  and

-           utilization of the locally available resources.


The curriculum of secondary school teacher education needs to maintain continuity with elementary school curriculum in certain respects. However, it has to become an independent entity in itself as the teachers at this stage are required to deal with mature students who have been exposed to many sided social and life experiences. The students at this stage acquire new psychological characteristics for addressing appropriate teaching strategies have to be deployed.


The curriculum of teacher education at this stage may include cultural heritage of India, its unity and diversity, its relevance, Indian philosophy, emerging Indian society, social problems, modernization, Westernization, evil effects of  violence and terrorism, challenges of value inculcation,  HIV/AIDS preventive education, educational experiments, psychology of teaching and learning, mental health, deviant behaviour, sub-normal and abnormal children, pedagogical analysis of certain areas of social sciences and sciences, concentration of attention, environmental awareness, teaching competencies in school subjects, development of scientific temper, development of linguistic and mathematical skills viewing learning as a  life long activity, working with community, general health, reproductive health, hygiene, yogic and physical education, art of meditation, ICT, counseling and guidance, school management, action research, working with community, status, history, problems and issues of secondary education, teachers and their social role, communal harmony and social cohesion, development of patriotic feeling and citizenship, disaster management etc. These theoretical components should focus on the realization of the goals of the curriculum and the transaction of its contents.


            The pedagogy of teacher education at this stage should consist of practical teaching, development of reading materials for students of various stages in social science, physical sciences, language and mathematics and internship of substantial duration in a school under the supervision of a teacher educator. The student-teachers will be required not only to acquire proficiency in the planning of lessons and their delivery but also learn the practical management of the class to arrange and organize school assemblies, prayers, promoting habits of cleanliness among the students and the school premises, proper seating arrangements for students etc. Practice of teaching should be a rigorous task which will include voice culture and its modulation. Emphasis will be laid on enhancing communication skills and use of ICT  and on improvising and using teaching aids. They would be encouraged to prepare teaching aids by themselves. Every teacher in the school has to maintain certain records. The prospective teachers will learn this art and participate in the evaluation of students. Preparation of different kinds of tests would be their job. The practical component of the programme should incorporate activities which enable the student teacher to adopt themselves to the local contexts also. Given below is a model to be suitably adopted.


Curriculum Framework for the Secondary
School Teacher Education


Duration : 2 years (4 Semesters)






-           Principles, Status, Problems and Issues in Secondary Education in India and the region concerned,

-           Emerging Indian Society : (Emphasis on unity, diversity and regional specificity) and Secondary Education,

-           Philosophy of Secondary Education : Indian and Western : (Only trends and educational implications),

-           Sociology of Education and Cultural Anthropology (unity, diversity and the study of regional culture be given due weightage),

-           Psychology of learning and motivation of secondary school level students (Regional and Group Specificities be given due weightage),

-           Curriculum and instructional designs for secondary school level,

-           Environmental Education,

-           Action research and innovative practices,

-           Peace education and Social Harmony,

-           Health, Hygiene and Physical Education,

-           Evaluation and Measurement,

-           Safety and Disaster Management,

-           Management, Planning and Finance,

-           Guidance and Counseling,

-           ICT and its use in Secondary Education,

-           Inclusive Education,

            Any other as per regional needs.


C.        Practical Activities


-           Internship for one semester at secondary school,

-           Teaching of two subjects & pedagogical analysis as is common in schools or prescribed by the university – (minimum 60 lessons),

-           Communication skills,

-           Environment Protection,

-           Ecosystem – Structure & Functions,

-           Plantation and Water Harvesting,

-           Energy Harvesting, 

-           Work Experience,

-           Beautification of Schools,

-           Organisation of Games and Sports,

-           Organisation of literary activities,

-           Organisation of tours and Excursions,

-           Organisation of Field Work,

-           Physical Education,

-           Community work/Interaction,

-           Cleanliness of Students,

-           Implementation of Action Research, Case studies and field work,

-           Preparation of tests to measure abilities,

-           Evaluation of answer scripts,

-           Sessional work and its Evaluation,

-           Preparation of maps, charts, diagrams,

-           Improvisation of low cost and no cost teaching aids,

-           Educational Games,

-           Diagnostic testing and remedial teaching,

            Any other need based activities.


Curriculum Transaction


            At the present moment, the responsibility of the curriculum transaction is on the teacher educators who by and large use lecture method for this purpose. Student-teachers of this stage are academically quite mature and can share the burden of their own study; therefore, the teacher educators should lay emphasis on non-conventional methods, self and independent study, group learning and discussion, field trips and excursion, problem solving and preparation of projects, Multi-channel learning system (MCLS). They have to learn to prepare tests and evaluation tools. Learning by community participation and observation, workshops and seminars are to be encouraged. In the teaching of methodology of science emphasis will be on laboratory techniques and observation.




            Evaluation of student teachers at this stage need to be comprehensive and continuous using formative and summative approaches. Due weightage should be given to the opinions of supervisors and school teachers who should be required to maintain the record of the progress of student teachers. The capacity to organize thoughts and express them coherently, taking notes from reading materials and using teaching aids and ICT carefully at the appropriate moment need to be the items of evaluation. Latest evaluation techniques and traditional methods of description, discussion, criticism, relationship between cause and effect should be blended  together. Comparison should be made between self-assessment, group assessment and teacher educators' opinion, and discrepancies between them should be fully explained. The annual examination  should be replaced by continous evaluation. Evaluation should be made on the basis of grades and not on marks.



3.5       Teacher Education for Senior Secondary School

(Academic Stream)


            The curriculum framework for quality teacher education 1998 made the important recommendation of starting a separate programme of teacher preparation for the teachers of senior secondary schools. But the recommendations could not be implemented. As a result, their merits and short comings  can hardly be assessed the need for a separate and advanced teacher preparation can be established on the grounds mentioned below :


-           Teachers at the senior secondary school possess an advanced educational qualification. Instead of integrated approach for teaching subjects, they are required to adopt disciplinary approaches for teaching different branches of social sciences and sciences etc.,

-           The streaming of academic and vocational studies will take place at this stage. A certain percentage of students will join the higher education in both the streams, but the majority is expected to join the work force and enter into life. In certain respects, the situation demands that the courses be terminal and meet the demands of market and society. This situation imposes new responsibilities on teachers,

-           Students of this stage acquire new characteristics-physical, psychological, mental and emotional,

-           Maturity of body and mind, diversification of interests, aptitude, power of abstract thinking, goal fixation, symbolization, self-consciousness, self-assertion, personal preferences, self-identity, self-respect, peer group influences, sex consciousness and interest, reference group behaviour, imitation of adult behaviour, attitude of challenge and defiance of established practices, some kind of idealism, egoism, self–expression and self-exhibition, psychological fixation of ideas and ideals, argumentation and rebelliousness and academic or vocational preferences become obvious and require special skills and competencies for the teachers at this stage,


            Thus the developmental characteristics, the thrust of the curriculum of this stage, transformation of the nature of courses of studies, their demarcation and enrichment and teachers' responsibility demand new programme of teacher education because its goals, courses, etc, become distinctively different and stand out sharply from the school education. Since the students will be admitted in the academic and vocational streams with different course contents, the objectives of teacher education will differ to some extent while maintaining a commonality.


Objectives of Teacher Education for Academic Stream


-           to develop among teachers an acceptable desired perspective about academic stream and understanding of its nature, purpose and philosophy,

-           to make them aware of the philosophy, purpose and teaching learning strategies of the subjects they have to teach,

-           to empower them to make indepth pedagogical analysis of the subjects they have to teach and understand their relevance to tertiary education,

-           to empower prospective teachers to comprehend the characteristics of students for making suitable educational provisions for them,

-           to enable them to guide learners and prepare them for self-study, independent learning, to develop reference skills, undertake group learning, critical thinking, conceptualization, self-evaluation of their own performance and derive knowledge/information from ICT, mass media and MCLS,

-           to develop among them the competencies to communicate abstract and complex ideas and concepts in simple terms,

-           to make them understand the objectives, transactional strategies, evaluation techniques and curriculum designing in different areas of study at this stage,

-           To empower the prospective student teachers to understand the regional specificities and educational demands and establish correlation with the main stream of national life and to suggest suitable solutions there off,

-           To develop among them the skills for promoting patriotic feeling national consciousness, social cohesion, communal harmony and universal brotherhood.

-           To enable the perspective teachers to evolve need based and culture specific pedagogy,

-           To make them aware of national problems, environmental crisis and Indian cultural ethos and

-         To enable them to orient and sensitize the students about HIV/AIDS, preventive education and to bring about attitudinal change in understanding numerous problems relating to healthy life, life skill development, stigma and discrimination etc.




Emerging Indian society, its problems and issues, compulsions and character of knowledge society and economy, LPG, WTO, Outsourcing, ICT, impact of science and technology, environmental crisis, alternative science and appropriate technology, Indian culture and its contribution, psychology of teaching and learning at this stage, place of senior secondary education in educational system, its problems, issues and status, curriculum, pedagogy and evaluation at this stage, pedagogical analysis of the subject to be selected for teaching, research methodology and action research, history, problems and systems of education, counseling and guidance, preventive education, adolesence education, philosophy of education including Indian philosophy, sociology and cultural anthropology etc. may be the some of the course contents of teacher education at this level. A tentative curriculum frame work is given below to be suitably adopted.


Curriculum Framework for the Teachers of

Senior Secondary Schools


(Academic Streams)


Duration : 2 years (4 Semesters)


Courses of study



-           Emerging Indian Society (Indian heritage, its unity, diversity, regional specificities modernization, post modernity, (Indian culture, globalisation, knowledge economy and knowledge society etc. be given emphasis),

-           Psychology of teaching and learning,

-           Philosophy of education (Relevant parts of Indian and Western Metaphysics, Epistemology and axiology),

-           Sociology and Cultural Anthropology,

-           Principles, Status, Problems, Issues and challenges of senior secondary education,

-           Pedagogical Analysis and techniques of teaching (two subjects-one being advanced level ('A' level)  and the other being ordinary level ('O' level),

-           ICT and its integration,

-           Environmental Education,

-           Health, Hygiene & Physical Education,

-           Adolesence education,

-           Safety Education and Disaster Management,

-           Evaluation and Measurement,

-           Peace education and Social Harmony,

-           Management, Planning and Finance of Education,

            Any other need based course of study.


B.        Electives


-           Teaching of (Pedagogical analysis of two subjects : one advanced and the other ordinary),

-           Pedagogical analysis of Home Science,

-           Pedagogical analysis of Foreign Language,

-           Pedagogical analysis of Mother Tongue & Regional Language,

            Any other need based subject of study,


C.        Specialization : One


-           History of Indian Education,

-           History of Western Education,

-           Comparative Education,

-           Educational Technology,

-           Education of the oppressed,

-           Women education,

-           Rural & Urban Education,

-           Education of Challenged Children,

-           Inclusive Education,

-           Population Education,

-           Problems of Education,

-           Distance Education and Open Learning System,

-           Evaluation of Textbooks and Reading Materials and their selection,

-           Any other which has not been taken as compulsory or elective.


D.        Practical activities 


-           Internship of one semester in a senior secondary school,

-           Teaching 40 lessons in a subject opted at 'A' level and 20 at 'O' level,

-           Pedagogical analysis of advanced and ordinary level subjects,

-           Community survey and preparation of report

-           Action Research, Field Work, Case Study one each,

-           Environmental Protection,

-           Plantation, Water Harvesting and Grass land development,

-           Participation in community games and festivals etc.,

-           Organization of games and sports,

-           Organization of supplementary educational activities,

-           Sessional work in major and ordinary subjects and their evaluation,

-           Soil Management and manures,

-           Beautification of school & Gardening,

-           Wall writing,

-           Addressing assemblies & debates,

-           Physical Education,

-           Promoting cleanliness hygiene in school and students,

-           Preparation of tests to evaluate performance and all kinds of abilities,

-           Evaluation of students answer scripts,

-           Preparation of Maps, Charts, Diagrams etc.,

-           Socially useful and productive work (SUPW),

-           Non-conventional methods and teaching,

-           Maintenance of educational records,

            Any other need based activity.


Curriculum Transaction


            The focus of curriculum transaction would be on self-study and independent learning or ‘Learning to Learn’; transaction through lecturer should be minimum in number but art of preparing and delivering lectures will have to be learnt. Seminars, workshops, laboratory and library  techniques, group discussion, fieldwork, use of ICT, preparation of learning materials and other kinds of projects, their evaluation by peer groups and teachers etc. would be the main methods of curriculum transaction. Internship will be arranged for acquiring the knowledge about how the schools function. During this period they will be required to teach sufficient lessons under the supervision of the teacher educator and the subject teacher. The teacher educator will discuss with the student teacher his/her performance and will provide feedback for improvement. The main objective of the internship programme would be the participation of the student teacher in all the activities of the school and acquire their knowledge so that when he/she takes up the job of a teacher, the school and its climate may not appear unfamiliar to him/her and he/she may prove his/her utility from the day one itself.




Evaluation would be of a comprehensive and continuous nature. Its purpose would be to improve the performance of student teacher and improve teaching competencies and performance skills. It should be formative and summative in nature for which appropriate tools will haveto be evolved. The art of self-evaluation and evaluation by peer groups will have to be learnt by prospective teachers who will have to be convinced about the advantages of the continuous evaluation


3.6       Teacher Education for Senior Secondary Schools

(Vocational Stream)


            Despite the recommendations of many committees and commissions, vocational education is yet to get a proper and respectable place in the educational system of the country. But the situation is showing gradual improvement though many kinds of misunderstandings still continue in the minds of the people. It is believed that it is an education for the non-academic and intellectually inferior students and for curtailing the pressure of numbers on higher education. In addition to this middle class attitude, there are certain cultural constraints which also come in the way of its success. The state has made many pious pronouncements for its expansion, but substantial actions are yet to be initiated. Besides these, there are the challenges of technology, market and job opportunities. Unless, vocational education becomes rich in its educational, cultural and economic value its future is not going to be encouraging. The content, practicum and the objectives of vocational education, therefore, demand serious consideration.


Objectives of Teacher Education for Teaching of Vocational Subjects


            The programme of teacher education for the vocational subjects has to achieve the following targets in the domain of competencies of student teachers.

-           To impart enriched vocational education which is essential for success in competitive and open market economy,

-           To transform the nature of traditional vocations and modernize them to achieve success,

-           To enable them to impart the skills of marketing, market survey, salesmanship and advertisement,

-           To empower them to develop higher and finer vocational skills and competencies among the prospective teachers and the ability to foster them among their students,

-           To enable them to design courses and competencies needed for self-employment,

-           To take precautions against becoming narrow specialists and educationally inferior workmen and

-           To enable the prospective teachers to inculcate dignity and morality of work and produce work culture among their students.




 The curriculum of the teacher education at this stage may comprise Indian culture, contemporary Indian society, economic problems and development, occupational and  educational psychology, marketing and salesmanship, survey of market demand and advertisement, exhibition of products, managing financial resources and machinery, fixation of price, accountancy, history, status, problems and issues in vocational education, management and organizational problems of vocations, learning and development of vocational skills and competencies, organizational behaviour, project formulation and use of computer and ICT. A tentative curriculum frame work of vocational education for teachers for adoptation is given below:


Curriculum Framework for the  Teachers of
Senior Secondary Schools

(Vocational Stream)


Duration : 2 years (4 Semester)


Courses of study


A.        Theoretical


-           Emerging Indian Society (Emphasis on science, technology, electronics, trade, commerce, industrialization and  economy etc.),

-           Philosophy, Sociology, Cultural Anthropology and their bearing on Vocational Education,

-           Occupational and Industrial Psychology,

-           Economic and Commercial Geography,

-           Entrepreneurship and Management,

-           Peace education and Social Harmony,

-           Managing Financial Resources & Raw Materials and Machineries,

-           Marketing, Salesmanship, Advertisement and market Survey,

-           Price fixation, Profit, Insurance etc.,

-           Elementary labour laws, Labour Welfare and Labour Problems,

-           Status, Problems, Issues and Challenges of Vocational education,

-           Theoretical knowledge of a trade or vocation,

-           Environmental education,

-           Adolesence education,

-           Evaluation.

-           ICT

            Any other region specific subject


B.        Specialization – Theory and Practice – One or Two


-           Fashion Design,

-           Catering and cooking,

-           Sewing and knitting,

-           Hotel management,

-           Spinning and Weaving,

-           Carpet Weaving,

-           Carpentry,

-           Block smith ship,

-           Agro based products,

-           Food and Fruit preservation,

-           Auto Mechanic,

-           Repair of machines amd engines,

-           Electrician,

-           Drilling,

-           Radio & Television,

-           Tractor mechanic,

-           Clay work/Painting,

-           Wall hanger/Painting,

-           Interior Decoration,

-           Toy making,

-           Painting,

-           Advertisement,

-           Computer Hardware,

            Any other vocational activities. 




-           Apprenticeship of two semesters,

-           Workshop Techniques,

-           Practical Accountancy,

-           Internship in a vocational school, ITI, TTI etc. for teaching and learning,

-           Internship as a salesman,

-           Market survey and reporting,

-           Survey of social demand & supply of a product,

-           Assessment of community needs,

-           Transportation of goods and its management,

-           Purchase of raw materials,

-           Maintenance of various tax registers and the payment procedures,

-           Environmental protection,

-           Water and Energy harvesting,

-           Disaster Management & Safety Education,

            Any other need based activities.


Curriculum Transaction


            Rich, relevant, useful, modern, scientific, and technological components of vocational education will be a part of academic input. However, management, organizational behaviour, marketing, salesmanship, advertisement etc. would be discussed by inculcating in them specific competencies. Visits to work place, market, vocational establishments and laboratory work, will get priority. Student teachers will learn to organize apprenticeship, on-job training and workshop practices. Formulation of projects, their evaluation, market survey and reporting, accountancy and auditing etc. will be the integral part of practical work. The theoretical components will be transacted as it is done in the academic stream with more emphasis on the practical side. But practicum will be conducted in actual work situation for a longer duration. The use of workshops and laboratory will receive priority. Interrelationship with theory and practice will be highlighted. The potentialities of in-service education should be fully utilized for updating the skills. For making the programme more attractive and meaningful, expertise of the Technical Teachers Training Institutes, NITs and similar agencies including NGOs may be enlisted.    




For the theoretical component,  the methods of assessing the achievement of prospective teachers will almost be the same as in the academic stream with suitable adjustments. But for the practicum and practice of teaching a different approach will have to be adopted. The actual work performed during the apprenticeship, projects prepared, market surveys conducted, materials and goods actually produced will have to be evaluated continuously. It will be evaluated whether the suggestions given by workshop superintendent and the supervisor have been duly incorporated. Gradual improvement in performance skills need to be taken into consideration. Viva-voce examination for the teachers of vocational education have to be given due importance. The performance should only be graded not marked.


3.7       Teacher Education for Integral Components


            Besides the programmes mentioned in this chapter, there are certain other components which need to be integrated into the programmes of teacher preparation for their educational value. Among them are Yogic Education, Physical Education, Aesthetic Education and Inclusive Education. Advanced and specialized teacher education programmes in these areas require different approaches and curriculum. It will be in fitness of things, therefore, to suggest the minimum which teachers are expected to know for the development of child’s personality.


Yogic Education


            The objective of yogic education is not to make them yogis but to develop their physical and mental power and make them healthy and  inculcate desirable habits for good life. To impart knowledge and develop the capacity to perform ‘Ashthang Yoga’ is not possible for teachers because it requires certain higher and specific discipline of body and mind. A few yogic asans for joints, hip, stomach, fingers, spinal-cord, neck, walking and sitting correctly, maintenance of proper posture and deep breathing should be known to all teachers. Pranayam, meditation and concentration should be taught to teachers for elementary stage of education and beyond. Knowledge about different kinds of food - satvik, rajasik and tamasik and their impact on body, mind and learning may be taught. Fixation of attention and exercises for the improvement in memory, retention and recall should form a part of the common curriculum of teacher education.


Physical Education :


            A rudimentary knowledge of physical education and exercises must be provided to all the prospective teachers. Basic principles of health, hygiene, cleanliness of body, organization of games, sports, community and Indian games and sports, races of different kinds, games with balls, etc. must be provided to them.  They must be taught to act as referees in  games and sports. Less theory and more practice should be the approach in these matters.


Inclusive Education


The objective of inclusive education is to empower the challenged-children with minor physical, mental disabilities and emotional instability, to enable them to become normal members of the school and the community and participate in various educational and social activities as equals. Further, it should guard them against the development of inferiority complex which leads to many problems. Prospective teachers have to be empowered with the skills and competencies necessary for dealing with such children so that they can  ensure their normal physical, mental, emotional and social development. The intention is that the prospective teachers may train these students, so that they can  face life with courage and confidence. Education of children with motor handicaps and other milder handicaps will be along with that of others. This knowledge should be given to all teachers. The National Policy of Education, 1986, recommends that ‘teacher training programme will be oriented, in particular for teachers of primary classes to deal with the special differences of the handicapped in the common school’. But this recommendation is valid for all stages of education.


            In its Salamanca statement 1994, the Unesco advised schools to accommodate all children regardless of their physical, intellectual, social, emotional and other deficiencies. This should include disabled and gifted children, street and working children, children from remote and nomadic population, children from linguistic ethnic or cultural minorities and children from other disadvantaged or marginalized groups. It also suggested that ‘children with special educational needs should be included in the educational arrangements for the majority of children’. Thus inclusive education is a comprehensive concept. It is not confined to educationally challenged learners. Therefore,  all students who join the programme of teacher education must be equipped and oriented to appropriate skills in order to provide inclusive education in the integrated situation to all children irrespective of the nature of challenges faced by them.


            Inclusive education in this form offers a challenge for teacher education. The teacher educators have to be empowered with additional skills and new professional commitments and awareness of the needs of these children.  It demands a learner centred approach. A common educational climate and culture and diverse educational experiences in the same school from the same teacher would prove beneficial to the students for which a small dose of pedagogical inputs from psychology, sociology and anthropology etc. will have to be added.  The teacher has to transform his idea of ‘below the average learner’ because children differ not only in abilities but also in the shades of the same ability.  Teacher Education has to empower the prospective teachers for taking educational measures for these children in the common setting.       


Art Education


            In view of the emerging challenges of the present century, art education should constitute an integnal part of curricular activity for the development of personality of learners.  The aim of “art education may be perceived as the development of aesthetic sensibility among learners so as to enable them to respond to the beauty in line, colour, form, movement and sound.  The study of arts and understanding of cultural heritage may go side by side and reinforce appreciation and understanding of one another” Art education can provide the most satisfying medium of creative expression which has to be given due importance in the best interest of the society.  It implies the combination of skill and the imagination in the creation of objects, environments and experiences.  It also designates modes of expression such as painting, drawing, sculpture, film making, music, dance, poetry theatre, architecture, ceramics and decorative arts which are divided broadly into visual and performing arts.


            The potentiality of art for fostering creativity, providing opportunity for self-expression and emotional satisfaction is well known.  It is an effective instrument for the removal of tension and depression. It is a means of relaxation and profitable use of leisure.  For the general teachers its objective is not to transform every student into an artist but to promote the aesthetic sensibility and contest what is ugly and sordid in life.  To train artist is the function of the teacher of art but to let the artistic feeling not die for the lack of opportunity is the duty of every teacher.  Art education, therefore, forms an integral component of education, specially for the nursery, elementary and secondary stages of education.


3.8       Teacher Preparation for Physical Education


            Despite being an integral component of education, physical education is yet to achieve its due place in education although all great educationists like Plato, Rousseau, Locke, Russell, Marx, Gandhi, Vivekanand, Sri Aurobindo, etc. have accepted its necessity.  The Hindus believe that Nayam Atma Balahinen Labhyah (self realization is impossible for the weak).  The reasons for this state of affairs are mainly two-first, it does not affect the performance at examinations conducted by the boards and second, its teachers are narrow specialists who remain alienated from the main stream of school life because they do not perform the functions of other teachers.  This situation demands a fresh look at the objectives and content of physical education and the functions of its teachers.


Objectives of Teacher Preparation for Physical Education


            Physical education is essential for the development of vitality, courage, strength, self-confidence, cooperative feeling, leadership, self-discipline, obedience and positive attitude towards life and the world.  The stage specific objectives and content for the teachers of physical education are, therefore, the following:


Objectives for the Elementary Stage,


-           to enable the prospective teachers to understand the implications of the various emerging physical characteristics and maturity of children,

-           to make them understand the nature and purpose of physical education in the context of Indian society,

-           to make them aware of the basic principles of health, hygiene and          nutrition,

-           to teach them the interrelationship between physical and mental health,

-           to empower them to organize games, sports and physical activities and exercises for building a sound body,

-           to empower them to organize Indian games, sports and physical exercises including the yogic Asans and community games and sports etc.,

-           to develop among them the competencies and skills to fostersportsmanship, alertness, emotional stability, etc. and

-           to give them knowledge about the emerging Indian society and cultural heritage of India.




            It has to be stressed that the standard of teachers of  physical education is not inferior to teachers of other education programmes.  Hence, the curriculum may include Indian heritage, contemporary Indian society, physical education in ancient India, Yogic exercises and their importance, status, problems and issues in physical education in modern India, organization of games, sports and physical exercises, basic principles of health and hygienic, psychology and sociology of physical education, methods and techniques of physical education, its management and organization, elementary knowledge of anatomy, physiology, kinesiology, sports medicine and safety education, etc.    


Practice of Teaching and Practicals


            Its principal technique will be internship in a school where the prospective teachers will be required to engage in all the practicals under the guidance of the supervisor and the school teacher.  The method of training will include demonstration of physical exercises including Yogic posture by the teacher and their imitation by students. Coaching, organization of games and sports, first aid, care of minor injuries, bandage and massage and upkeep and the use of materials  and equipments will be its integral component.  Students will be given both theoretical and practical training during the internship.


Curriculum Transaction     


            The transaction of theoretical content of physical education would not be different from that of the other subjects but for the practicum demonstration by the teacher educator to be followed by the student teacher shall be an essential pre-requisite. Marching, swimming, gymnastics and exercises will be performed by the student teachers under the guidance of the expert and their technical details will be fully explained.  Record of the progress of student-teachers will be maintained by the supervisor on the spot.




            Evaluation of the theoretical content will be almost on the same pattern as in other subjects, but for the practicum the performance of the pupil teacher and his/her ability to train students will be taken into consideration.  The records of the year’s performance will form the basis.  Student-teachers will be graded on a seven point scale.

Preparation of Teachers of Physical Education for Secondary stage


            We need to pay special attention to preparation of teacher for physical education in secondary and senior secondary schools. Not much deviation is needed in the objectives, curriculum, pedagogy and process of evaluation in the programme of teacher preparation which is intended to achieve the under-mentioned objectives:


-           to enable the prospective teachers to understand Indian cultural heritage and the importance of physical education and its methodology followed by the ancient  Acharyas and Gurus;

-           to train them in the advanced yogic exercises;

-           to empower them to make a synthesis between Indian and Western system of physical education, games and sports;

-           to enable them to know the nature, purpose, philosophy and psychology of physical education;

-           to make them capable of ultising school and community resources/ approaches for physical education;

-           to develop among them a broader educational perspective in addition to making them teachers of physical education;

-           to prepare them for planning, selecting, organizing physical education activities, programmes, games and sports;

-           to inspire them to arouse students' interest in physical education

-           to enable them to inculcate values by means of physical education and develop character and personality;

-           to prepare them to impart knowledge about health, hygiene and nutrition;

-           to cultivate  among them the spirit of sportsmanship;

-           to enable them to develop the capacity of  self-decision, cooperativeness, optimism, alertness, obedience, team spirit and leadership qualities.




            The theoretical component in the curriculum may include Indian heritage and emerging Indian society, foundations of physical education, its status, problems and issues, yogic exercises, regional games and sports, psychology of physical education, anatomy, physiology and kinescology, sports medicine, rules of games and sports, science of training and coaching, education of athletes and developing training competencies and evaluation techniques for physical education. 


            Practicum should include organizing physical and yogic exercises and games and sports during a programme of internship of substantial duration, organization of school and community games, sports etc, organizing competion within the school and among the schools,  recreational activities, teaching major games, swimming, racing, horse riding, track and field activities, defensive and martial arts, first aid, gymnastic, bandage, massage, management of minor injury, conditioning and relaxation etc.


Curriculum Transaction and Evaluation


            There will be hardly any difference in the process of transaction and evaluation for the theoretical component of the curriculum. But the practice of teaching and practicum have to be more activity oriented in their nature and content, and demonstration and actual performance would be the main techniques of teaching.  The teacher educator will actually conduct the demonstration.  The prospective teachers will be asked to observe minutely and repeat the same in the presence of the teacher educator  who will correct or improve upon the improper posture.  Supervision will be made jointly by the teacher educator and school teacher.  Detailed records of activities and exercises undertaken by the student-teachers will be maintained. Evaluation of theory component will be made on the line of other courses but practical training will be based on actual performance.  External examiners may be invited and evaluation would be a joint responsibility of the school teacher, supervisor and external examiner.  In place of marks grades should be awarded.



3.9       Teacher Education for the Teachers of Distance Education and Open Learning Systems




            Open learning systems and distance learning modes are emerging as alternatives to the formal system of education.  They have proved effective not only for spreading education, but also in dissemination of ideas, removing educational obsolescence, and inequality , upgradation  of knowledge, professional and vocational skills and helping in the process of life long learning.  Our main concern here is to develop a meaningful programme for teachers who are engaged in open learning system where the opportunities of face to face contact and personal interaction are far less than the formal system.  The teachers in this system have to deal with such students:


-           who are not present before them and if they are present their presence is not of a substantial duration;

-           whose psychological and sociological backgrounds are not fully known to the teachers;

-                     whose out of school climate and educational factors and forces and the constraints or facilitators are not known to the teachers,  who should  know that school is not the only medium of education.


Inspite of these facts, in addition to imparting knowledge and skills, the teachers help in the development of character.  They have to develop self-learning, and self-evaluating materials and promote the culture and capacity for independent learning, self-study and life long learning. Preparation of teachers for open learning system is a difficult and challenging task.  In addition to many common objectives of the formal system, it has to develop many other competencies and performance skills among the teachers. In addition to the general objectives of teacher education it has to achieve the following specific objectives:


-           to empower the teachers to develop self-learning materials for the students of distance education system,

-           to promote the capacity of independent learning, critical thinking, reasoning, problem solving, self-evaluation, self-expression and communication skills;

-           to enable the teachers to organize short term contact programmes, plan their educational activities and make their proper use;

-           to develop self-respect and self-efficacy among the students;

-           to transform the nature of formal evaluation and make it flexible and also to reduce its importance;

-           to promote among the students reading habits and the capacity of expression of ideas;

-           to foster among the students love for Indian cultural heritage, and

-           who are not present before them and if they are present their presence is not of a substantial duration;

-           whose psychological and sociological backgrounds are not fully known to the teachers;

-                     whose out of school climate and educational factors and forces and the constraints or facilitators are not known to the teachers,  who should  know that school is not the only medium of education.


Inspite of these facts, in addition to imparting knowledge and skills, the teachers help in the development of character.  They have to develop self-learning, and self-evaluating materials and promote the culture and capacity for independent learning, self-study and life long learning. Preparation of teachers for open learning system is a difficult and challenging task.  In addition to many common objectives of the formal system, it has to develop many other competencies and performance skills among the teachers. In addition to the general objectives of teacher education it has to achieve the following specific objectives:


-           to empower the teachers to develop self-learning materials for the students of distance education system,

-           to promote the capacity of independent learning, critical thinking, reasoning, problem solving, self-evaluation, self-expression and communication skills;

-           to enable the teachers to organize short term contact programmes, plan their educational activities and make their proper use;

-           to develop self-respect and confidence among the students;

-           to transform the nature of formal evaluation and make it flexible and;

-           to promote among the students reading habits and the capacity of expression of ideas;

-           to foster among the students love for Indian cultural heritage, and values;

-           to develop ability to take quick decision and develop critical awareness about Indian social reality;

-           to make the students capable of shouldering their own educational responsibility - progress and self-improvement;

-           to develop among teachers the competencies required for the selection and use of appropriate educational and information and communication technology;

-           to train them for preparing radio, TV, computer assisted learning progrmmes and teleconferencing;

-           to empower the teachers to establish linkage and relationship with the formal system and exchange of ideas between the teachers and students; and

-           to promote among them the desire to join the formal system.


Curriculum :  Theoretical Component   


            The curriculum for the teachers in distance or open learning system would not be substantially different from the curriculum of teacher education for the formal system although it is expected that it will be more rich, and  would develop additional competencies for the realization of the objectives mentioned earlier.  The philosophy, nature, purpose of open learning systems, its place in the educational system with special reference to India, distance education and life long learning (learning to learn and learning to do) and upgradation of knowledge and skills, preparation and evaluation of self-learning materials, development of assignments and their evaluation, guidance and counseling, preparation of radio and T.V. talks, teleconferencing, use of information and communication technology, emerging trends in international community, culture specific pedagogy, characteristics and needs of distant learners and their educational and personality development, planning and execution of contact programmes etc will be the main component of theoretical aspect of distance education. 


            Practice of teaching, preparation of self-learning materials, assignments and their evaluation, organization of contact programmes, practical use of information and communication technology,  preparation of self-evaluation sheet, maintenance of records of students, organization of games, sports and supplementary educational activities and community games and programmes would be the integral part of the practical activities.




            Evaluation of the performance of teachers in this stream will not be substantially different.  The common component of both the systems and the additional components shall be evaluated together on a seven- point scale.  But emphasis will be laid on development of skills such as the preparation of self-learning materials, effective curriculum transactions, assignments and evaluation etc to ensure the quality of these materials.


3.10     Eligibility, Duration and Models of Teacher Education


            If the quality of professional education of teachers is to be enriched/ improved, besides incorporating additional meaningful and relevant inputs in the curriculum for all stages and levels, the entry qualifications, duration of the programmes also need reconsideration.  Certain steps have already been taken in this direction.  The state of Uttar Pradesh had increased the eligibility qualifications for elementary teachers from 10+2 to 10+2+3 with 45% marks, and has prescribed a 2 years rigorous programme of teacher education including internship of considerable duration.  After some resistance it became operational. 


            A few prevent models of teacher education are being summarised in the table which follows:



Entry Qualification

Duration of Professional Education


10+2 II division

2 years


10+2 II division


Graduate II division

3 years


2 years


Post Graduate II division

2 years


1 year after B.Ed.


Graduate II division

2 years

Integrated B.A./B.Ed./B.Sc. B.Ed.

10+2 II division

5 years


After Integrated B.Ed./B.P.Ed.

2 years


            There are many more academically and professionally sound criteria for eligibility and duration of professional education, but the present arrangement for teacher education cannot be defended.  Necessary action in this direction should start as soon as possible.


            It is true that a few institutions of teacher education have increased the duration and have undertaken innovative programmes, particularly at the elementary level.  But, by and large, the programme of teacher preparation at the secondary level does not show much deviation from its old models and practices except the modernization and enrichment of its courses.  The educational climate in these institutions is more or less prescriptive and they adopt rigid posture in place of flexible approaches which the teacher education demands.  In professional education rigidity and prescriptive ness become counter productive and do not allow to experiment with new ideas and novel practices.


            Teacher education is organized by many types of institutions in the country.  There are multifaculty institutions with departments of education, philosophy, psychology, sociology, anthropology, history, bio sciences etc. whose teachers can be invited to teach and assist in the teaching of certain pedagogical subjects. Such institutions can evolve appropriate content and methods of teaching the subjects like integrated science and social sciences and add meaningful components in these subjects.  New experiments in the teaching of languages, mathematics and aesthetic subjects can also be undertaken.


            The increased duration of teacher education along with semesterization can provide opportunity for adopting an integrated approach in teaching especially in the teaching of physical education, yogic education, aesthetic education, social science, science, life skill and adolesence education etc. 


            In the first two semesters, courses common for all students may be taught but in the third and fourth semesters pursuit of specialized courses and practice of teaching and internship etc. may be arranged with flexibility to change the streams.  This process may promote effective and meaningful integration between the foundational and specialized studies and make the practical aspect of teacher education meaningful and effective.  Instead of following a single model approach, there is a need to adopt multi model approach.  Flexibility like this may be adopted in evolving other models.  The possibilities of 2 to 3 years elementary teacher education programme after graduation or 10+2 respectively can also be visualized.  Integrated B.Sc., B.Ed. or B.A., B.Ed. programmes after 10+2 for five years duration where method and content can be effectively integrated can also be thought of.  The universities and multifaculty institutions may evolve new models of teacher preparation with the concurrence of the NCTE and the UGC.


3.11     Models of Teacher Preparation


            There appears to be no valid reason for developing a separate model for the teacher of ECCE. It may very well fit in the elementary school teacher preparation programme. Elementary, secondary and senior secondary teacher education programmes may also be included in a single model. This may take the shape of a comprehensive college model suggested by the Indian Education Commission.  A few suggested models are given below:


Model-I : B.Ed. 2 years teacher education


            In this model prospective teachers will pursue a common course of study for two or three semesters and specialized studies and experiences including the practice teaching and internship for the rest of the period.  These specialized courses would be for languages, mathematics, environmental studies, physical education, yogic education, life skill and adolesence education etc. pertaining to pre-primary, and elementary schools. Pedagogical analysis would begin from the second semester   and go up to the fourth.  Its approach would imply analysis of integrated subjects.  The foundation courses including philosophy, sociology, anthropology and psychology etc. would be taken of in the first two semesters. Emphasis will be laid on the integration of subjects and pedagogy.


Model –II : Integrated Teacher Education Programme –
5 years after 10+2


            The thrust of the second model would be towards achieving an integration of academic subjects being taught in schools. Academic subjects would be taken by postgraduate teachers with the help of lecturers from other faculties wherever available, otherwise teacher educators will themselves handle such classes. It would enrich their knowledge of subjects.  Integration of academic and professional studies will provide them opportunities to examine educational theories and practices.  Academic, and professional studies and practical work, through internship would be suitably adjusted in the following semester.



In-service Teacher Education



4.1       Introduction


            In-service teacher education, throughout the world, has acquired an important role for professional upgrading of teachers.  The National Policy on Education holds it to be a continuation of pre-service teacher education and believes the two i.e. pre-service and in-service to be inseparable like the two sides of a coin.  In the age of explosion of knowledge at an unprecedented speed, even those who had the advantage of acquiring the most sophisticated education will become outdated and anachronistic in a very short span of time. If they have to remain upto- date, and relevant and face the challenge of other modes of acquiring knowledge, the need for their re-education, re-learning and de-learning is essential.


            In addition to explosion of knowledge, there has been another explosion in the means of acquiring knowledge and advancement in teaching and learning techiques.  New devices, techniques, mass media specially the electronic, computer assisted learning and information and communication technology have revolutionized the teaching-learning process.  Teachers unaware of the advances in these areas and incapable of utilizing them in education would not be able to perform their duties effectively in a rapidly changing learning society.  Modern realities and circumstances demand that for the progress of students and the nation, qualitatively rich knowledge, and technology for its transmission, have become the call of the hour.


Teachers learn the professional competencies and performance skills in a particular context which goes on changing.  Preparing them to adjust to the new social and educational contexts and demands of the emerging concerns require re-education and additional inputs.  By and large, pre-service education of teachers remains cut off from the realities of schools.  Its gaps become obvious when the teachers are inducted in the school for performing their duties.  In-service education of teachers, therefore, becomes essential for bridging the gaps of pre-service education and for meeting the demands of the changing educational scenario, its context and concerns.  It is essential for promoting the desire for ‘life long learning’ and also for ‘learning to learn.’  The inservice programme of teacher education, therefore, has to realize the objectives mentioned below:





-           to enable teachers to understand the changing educational and social contexts and concerns,

-           to prepare them to accept and utilize the various educational potentialities of information and communication technology,

-           to help teachers explore new developments in their content and process of subjects they teach.

-           to sensitize teachers with the educational problems of the disadvantaged  sections of society.

-           to empower them to realize the objectives of school curriculum in the light of changing circumstances,

-           to  provide them  a  forum  for exchange of ideas and experiences and to enable them to integrate human values and environmental awareness with the subjects they teach,

-           to increase the level of motivation of teachers, develop self-confidence, promote the spirit of inquiry and help them to be committed and reflective teachers, 

-           to prepare teachers for new roles that they may take in career advancement.

-           to help teachers share their best practices and  to acquaint them with the new international practices/to  absorb them in the system in case found useful,



4.3       Provisions for In-Service Teacher Education


At present many agencies are involved in in-service education of the teachers.  The UGC, NCERT, SCERT’s, DIETs, IASEs, CTEs and a few NGOs are doing useful work in this field. Though the programme is being organized at various levels (national, state, district, block and school cluster levels) still, much needs to be done.  Attempts should be made to manage a planned, purposive and well thought out programme of in-service education.  It may be observed that INSET at the place of work (without causing much disturbance  in teaching or displacing the teachers) may be a better option.  There is a need to evolve alternative models and strategies as mentioned in the NCTE’s Curriculum Framework for Quality Teacher Education, 1998.


Some of the common models of INSET may be categorised as face to face conventional, cascade and distance education model.  In conventional model the INSET is organised at the resource institution site as in a IASE or DIET or SCERT or ASC.  Such an approach can cater to a limited number of participants. This model has two main limitations first that it can accomodate only a limited number of trainees  and second, that teachers have to leave their locations which results in loss to their students.   The second model, the cascade one, imparts training at two or three levels.  At the first level, a few key trainers or key resource persons  are trained who each in turn train a few resource  person who each again train a few teachers, thus  covering  a large number of trainees.  The advantage of this model is obvious.  In short duration of time it can reach  to a large number of trainees.  But the disadvantages are also obvious.  The transmission loss occurs at each level where the content gets deminished and distorted.  Support of  video lectures can overcome to some extent this transmission loss.


With the advent of satellite technology, open distance learning system, the third model of INSET, has been in vogue in India especially after 1970.  This model has now been greatly reinforced by facilities provided by advances in ICT which involve provision  of on-line courses.  The facilities provided by satellite technology and internet, have greatly increased the possibilities of E-learning options.  The above models need to be judisciously used in the INSET.  The following aspects also need closer attention:


          There is the need to shift the locale  of the in-service teacher education. It has to be made as far as possible school based.

          Incentives should be given for attending the programme. Promotional avenues should be opened for those who attend and perform better.

          INSET programmes should be organized to update the knowledge of content, particularly in the areas of new topics and to provide greater awareness about new policy initiatives.

          On taking up the new assignment or additional responsibilities or promotion in job, specific inservice education programmes should be made obligatory.

          The INSET programmes will have to be made multidimensional, and  multifacet.  They need not be confined only to communicative, instructional and evaluation skills but must get widened in scope to cover co-curricular activities too.

          Resource centres for imparting in-service education be developed at the district and block levels both for elementary as well as secondary level teachers.

          The competence of resource persons is one important factor in improving the quality of programme.  Cooperation should be sought from the NGOs, retired teachers, teacher educators and officials of various Departments.

-           UNESCO has been using  mobile training teams  to share country exprience. The possibilities of organizing  mobile training  teams should be explored at the national level and wherever such arrangements exist, they  be made more effective.

-           Good study  literature (study materials) should  be prepared to make teachers up to date in the content, method, and evaluation  of education.


4.4       Content, Method and Evaluation


            Content and quality of the in-service education programme would depend on the objectives of the programme itself.  However, the upgradation of knowledge of school subjects, their pedagogy, communication skills, information and communication technology and new methods of evaluation may form its common core.  Teachers should be made aware of the new and emerging issues and their new roles.  The programme should not be reduced to a monologue.  It should be a dialogue between the participating teachers and the resource persons.  Group discussion, seminars and workshops be arranged.  A few participants may also be encouraged to act  as resource persons.


            Evaluation of the in-service programme and its outcome are the weakest link in the programme. The participants and the programme itself are evaluated casually on ad-hoc basis. It has become only a formality. The resource persons and participants should express their opinion on the effectiveness of the programme. To complete a proforma in this regard becomes only a matter of routine and formality. There is the need to devise other methods and techniques of evaluation. The goals, implementation, relevance, planning, duration, and the inputs provided by resource persons, out- comes and cost effectiveness etc.  need to be properly reflected in the evaluation procedure.




Education of Teacher Educators



5.1       Introduction


            The quality of teacher education depends on the quality of teacher educators. Since they play the most crucial role in the professional education of teachers, their education becomes a vital input not only for implementation of the recommendations of this curriculum framework but also for the improvement of overall quality of education. A weak programme of education of teachers, can hardly make any positive contribution to achieve the projected targets. Reconsideration of the programmes of  professional preparation of teacher educators has become obligatory.


5.2       Present Scenario


            Programmes of the education of teacher educators are organized by the universities, which are by and large generic in nature and not stage specific only a few universities have started innovative stage specific programmes. Even the programmes for the preparation of secondary school teacher educators organized by many universities are traditional and some of  the recommendations of Curriculum Framework 1998 to improve the quality of education of teacher educators are yet to be implemented. Duration of the programme has neither been increased nor the courses have meaningfully been revamped. A single, linear and common programme which is not capable of attaining the stage and subject specific objectives  in the contemporary context still (holds the away this situation has to be addressed forthwith.


Education of teacher educators is yet to meet the demands of education in general and teacher education in particular.  In the meanwhile, additional ones were created by the Curriculum Framework of Quality Teacher Education 1998 and National School Education Curriculum Framework (2005) have serious implications for education of teacher educators. National and international scenario on the one hand and emerging curricular concerns on the other call for the reconsideration of the programme of preparation of teacher educator in the light of the new challenges which the programmes of education teacher have to meet and the responsibilities They have the following functions of teacher education become germane:  


-           Preparing teacher educators for different stages and for vocational education,

-           Enabling teacher educators to develop competencies, communication and performance skills for training teachers in teaching of integrated social science, science and technology, stage specific life skills, 

-           Enabling the teacher educators to understand the implications of state’s new education policies, emerging contexts and concerns and international challenges on education in general and teacher education in particular.

-           Enabling prospective teacher educators to understand the implications of new developments in science, technology, medicine, genetic engineering etc. on the theory and practice of education,

-           Empowering teacher educators to integrate-inclusive education, physical education, yogic education life skills education, adolesence education and aesthetic education with teacher education programmes, and


5.3       Objectives


            Keeping in view the aforemationed functions of programmes of teacher educators, the following objectives merit consideration.  The prospective teacher educators be able:


-           to help teachers to use suitable pedagogy for different subjects through integrated as well as disciplinary approaches at different stages.

-           to empower teachers to become professionally competent, committed,  and reflective at different stages of school education,

-           to develop among teacher educators the desire and the capacity to improve the programmes of teacher education and make it realistic, purposive, and flexible.  

-           to enable them to appreciate various models of  curriculum, design, pedagogy and evaluation practices.

-           to stimulate their the capacity for reflective teaching, problem solving and sharpen their skills of action research and researching general.

-           to help them understand the inter-disciplinary nature of educational theory and practices and integrate theory with practice.

-           to develop among them interest in appreciating educational practices of other countries and utilize this knowledge,

-           to empower them to utilize Indian educational thinking in teacher education.

-           to help them reflect on India’s social realities, and their implications for teacher education.

-           to promote among them the interest in life-long, self-directed learning and develop innovative ideas and practices to improve the condition of teacher education,


5.4       Curriculum


            For the preparation of teacher educators, there is at present one single programme of education and it is M.Ed. Its courses are of general nature and are not much relevant for the professional development of teacher educators for various levels and stages. The M.A. (Education) has yet to get wide acceptability. The stage specific curriculum of teacher education requires serious attention. Its duration is too short to meet the professional requirement. 


            Instead of a general curriculum, stage specific and subject oriented curriculum of teacher education need to be developed  Alternative programmes  should be broad based, flexible and  integrated in structure with an intrinsic capability of  meeting the stage and subject specific demands. The quality and standard of the curriculum of teacher education must be enriched in the light of global experiences incorporating the findings of researches in different disciplines having implications for teacher education. Interdisciplinary approach in the curriculum development of education of teacher educators will enhance its value. It needs to be enriched by adding more practical and research components and specialized programmes of different kinds.


            Despite the demands of the stage and special requirements of different levels and subjects certain common content is essential. This may include cultural heritage of India, its compositeness and diversity, change and continuity, contemporary Indian society and its problems and the role of the teacher education in their solution. The philosophical foundations of education need to include Indian philosophical thinking. The sociology of education has to incorporate Indian social realities and cultural and social anthropology. The components of comparative education should be included for developing world perspective in education.


            Drastic changes are also needed in the courses of educational psychology which totally neglects Indian psychological approaches. Researches in the discipline of life sciences, genetic engineering, physiology, anatomy and neurology can contribute a lot to the educational psychology but they are yet to be accommodated in the courses of education of teacher educators. The streaming at the plus two stage demands the inclusion of guidance and counseling. The Courses in respect of research methodology also need upgrading.   Action research need to be given high priority.  The course content of educational research needs a relook to make it more relevant.


            The curriculum of education of teacher educators has to address itself to the special needs of pre-school education, elementary education, secondary education, senior secondary education (academic and vocational streams) inclusive education and other neglected aspects like aesthetic, physical and yogic education etc. with the unfolding of AIDS   epidemic, the technique and content of life skills and adolesence education requires urgent forms. History of education has been regressed to the study of recommendations of various reports ignoring their larger social and educational purpose, and factors and forces affecting education. There is the need to give proper attention to dissertation, field work, projects and the conditions of education of teacher education, its status, problems and issues.


            A suggestive curriculum framework of education of teacher educators is given below : 


Curriculum Framework for the education of
Teacher Educators (M.Ed.)


Duration : 2 years ( 4 semesters)


Eligibility : B.Ed. Preferably with Post Graduate Degree.


Courses of study  will consist of


A.        Core,

B.         Electives,

C.        Specialisation,

D.        Practicum,


A.        Theoretical: Compulsory for all.


-           Contemporary Indian Society (Heritage, evolution, Influences, Unity and Diversity, change and continuity, LPG etc. be emphasized),

-           Philosopy of education : Eastern and Western,

-           Sociology and Anthropology,

-           Comparative education (with factors and forces effecting education),

-           Psychology of teaching and learning (Indian Psychology be given due weightage),

-           Environmental education,

-           Educational Technology & Computer Education,

-           Research and statistics in education

-           Measurement and Evaluation,

-           Concept and philosophy of humanities, social sciences and sciences and unity of knowledge,

-           Vocational education,

-           Educational, Vocational guidance and counseling, 

-           Any other subject as per regional requirement.


B.         Electives : Two of the following :-


-           History of Indian education

-           History of Western education

-           Human Resource Development

-           Organisational behaviour

-           Population education

-           Peace Education

-           Inclusive education

-           Advanced educational psychology

-           Evaluation & Measurement

-           Pedagogy of the social sciences

-           Pedagogy of the science and technology

-           Pedagogy of the language and literature

-           Pedagogical analysis of one/two school subjects

-           Pedagogy of vocational education

-                     Any other need based subject


C.        Specialization : One has to choose any two subjects from the selected group.


            Group A :         i)          Early Child Care Education,

                                    ii)         Elementary Teacher Education,

                                    iii)         Secondary Teacher Education,

iv)        Senior Secondary Teacher Education : Academic or Vocational. 


            Group B :         i)          Curriculum Development,

                                    ii)         Instructional materials for teachers and students,

iii)         Curriculum Transaction, 

iv)        Curriculum evaluation,


            Group C :         i)          Educational Management,

                                    ii)         Educational Economics and Finance,

iii)         Educational Planning ,

iv)        Educational Policy,


Group D :         i)          Educational Technology,

ii)         Information and Communication Technology,

iii)         Computer in the analysis of research data,


            Group E :         i)          Teacher education for non-formal system,

                                    ii)         Teacher education for distance learning,

iii)         Teacher education for vocational education,

iv)        Teacher education for physical education,


Group F :         i)          Population education,

                                    ii)         Environmental education,

iii)         Disaster mitigation and management,

iv)        Inclusive education,


Group G.                      i)          Vocational Guidance and Counseling,

                                    ii)         Educational Evaluation and statistics,

iii)         Adolesence education,

iv)        Health & Hygienic.


D.        Practicum :    

-           Internship for a period of one semester in a teachers college, in a school and in an office,

-           Teaching and supervision in B.Ed Class,

-           Observation of lessons given by the B.Ed. students in the schools,

-           Dissertation on any important educational topic,

-           Report of                      i) Field  study,

ii) Case study ,

iii) Action research,

iv) Community interaction,

-           Organisation of games, sports and first aid,

-           Development of stand alone T-L materials,

-           ICT and its use,

-           Entical analysis and Evaluation of text books,

-           Preparation of Achievement tests (under CRT4 NRT approaches) Seminar presentation, participation is seminar/workshops and diagnostic tests,

-           Conduct of seminars, workshops and debates etc.,

-           Formulating of Implementing projects relating to Environment Improvement,

-           Any other local specific activity.


            M.Ed. courses may have some programmes common during the first two semesters. Specialized studies may be pursued in the third and fourth semester.  Dissertation and action research may start from the third semester.  This kind of M.Ed. programme will produce professionally well equipped teacher educators who will not be a narrow specialist. The M.Ed. programme is to be designed in such a manner that it provides an opportunity for the school/college of education based activities and caters to the needs of schools, colleges, teacher education institutions as well as the needs of administration and management.


Teacher Education for the teachers of Vocational Education at Senior Secondary Level


Duration : 2 years ( 4 Semesters)


            The courses of Vocational Teacher Education shall be of 4 semesters duration. For two semesters prospective teachers will study general as well as vocational courses for the rest of the two semesters. They will pursue the study of vocations subjects, their pedagogy and apprentiship etc.


Courses :


i)          Foundation courses

ii)         Electives

iii)         Specialisation

iv)        Practicum


A.        Foundation Courses :


-           Emerging Indian Society (with the special emphasis on the input of the science, technology, cottage, industries environment etc.),

-           Occupational and Industrial psychology,

-           Sociology, anthropology and Industrial sociology,

-           Principle, status and problems of vocational education,

-           Theoretical knowledge of one/two vocations,

-           Book-keeping and accountancy,

-           Marketing and salesmanship,

-           Economics and commercial geography,

-           Environment and pollution,

-           Computer Hardware & Maintenance,

-           Any other course of study related to the local conditions and vocations.


B.        Electives : (two subjects)


-           Taxation

-           Export and import

-           Office Management

-           Labour laws

-           Organisational Behaviour

-           Market Survey

-           Safety and disaster management in a workshop situation

-           Maintenance and repairs of Machines

-           Any other relevant subject.


C.        Specialisation :


-           Intensive theoretical and practical knowledge of one or two vocations taught at the senior secondary level.


D.        Practicum :


-           Apprentiship  for two/three semesters in a workshop related to the chosen vocation,

-           Report of the market survey,

-           Practical book-keeping and accountancy,

-           Apprenticeship of salesmanship,

-           Business letter writing/correspondence,

-           Report on the quality of a product,

-           Workshop practices,

-           Machine repair,

-           Sales and purchases,

-           Community survey,

-           Environmental protection,

-           First aid,

-           Survey of demand and supply,

-           Any other need based activity.


5.5       Curriculum Transaction


            In the transaction of curriculum more emphasis currently  is laid upon lecture method ignoring methods for self and independent learning.  This imbalance has to be corrected.   Seminars, workshops, field studies and projects need to be given higher priority. The objective of classroom transaction should not be to pass on readymade outdated educational information, but to promote life-long learning and reflective thinking.   Capabilities & skills, group learning and discussions need to be promoted. The study of social and educational contexts and concerns as a means to improve curriculum transaction is the effective means in the process of preparation of teacher educators.


            The transaction of theoretical component of the educational programme of teacher education may not differ substantially from the strategies followed in social sciences. The scholars from sister disciplines may  support the staff  to deliver lectures on relevant topics to bring the components of teacher education programme at par with other allied disciplines and to improve its quality. For the transaction of practical components,  its own specific strategies have to be evolved. An internship of reasonable duration can be arranged in a college of education pertaining to the field of specialization and the prospective teacher educators can be asked to submit a report on all aspects of its functioning/or any of aspects in details.


5.6       Evaluation in Teacher Education


            Evaluation as a concept and mechanism is an important sub system of education.  Teacher educators should help minimise the fear of failure and the burden of annual examination.  They (teacher educator) should realise that formative evaluate, and criterion based testing help the instructional process and that the end of evaluation is to promote the capacity of self evaluation.


            Programme of teacher educators should be so designed as to empower, the prospective teacher  educators evaluate all aspects of teacher education : theory, practice of teaching, practicum and supplementary educational activities. It must enable then with an insight into the technical facets of educational evaluation relevant to the related stage and the ability to professionally use the same in the discharge of their responsibilities. The outcome of the teacher education programme should be enabling, empowering and enriching the prospective teachers in effectively evaluating their pupils in both scholastic and co-scholastic areas of growth, using both conventional and non-conventional techniques and tools of evaluation.


            .Prospective teacher educators besides others should be evaluated in skills and competency to supervise practice teaching, internship competency to organise co-curricular and out-of-institution activities.




Management of Teacher Education



6.1       Introduction


            Management aims at deriving maximum benefits from the given inputs. The scarce means and resources which can be alternatively deployed for improving teacher education have to be carefully utilized. The personnel who have to manage the system need to be properly educated on issue of market forces that impinge on education namely cost effectiveness, productivity , efficiency and effectiveness. The age of general expert in the art of management of education has gone.   


            Management, planning and finance of education demand a different approach from that of a factory or police administration as it relates to development of human personality. The management of education is a process of nation building and expenditure on education is an investment for the future of the younger generation which is the main objective of teacher education. 


6.2       Present Status


            Subject to certain provisions of the constitution, education is in the concurrent list and its administration is the responsibility of states. Effective steps have also been taken for decentralization. There are statutory bodies for the maintenance and coordination of standards like the University Grants Commission, the National Accreditation Assessment Council and National Council for Teacher Education etc. The ministers of education assisted by secretaries from Indian Administrative Services are responsible for the administration of education. The bureaucracy plays a dominant role in the formulation of educational policies and their implementation. There are advisory bodies with expert members on education but still the process needs democratization to achieve people’s cooperation.


            Imposition of a rigid and uniform system of educational management ignoring the regional variation and diversity of Indian society, may not be conducive for achieving the goals of teacher education. In the context of Indian realities, consultative policy planning and its decentralized implementation is sure to be more acceptable and productive. Institutional autonomy for experimentation in teacher education should be assured but proper steps for blending autonomy with accountability needs to be taken, and transparency should be reflected in all its activities and programmes.  The system of educational management needs to be more dynamic and forward looking to realize the objectives mentioned below.


6.3       Objectives of Teacher Education Management


          To ensure continuous and ongoing professional growth of teachers and teacher educators 

          To provid and ensure freedom to institutions of teacher education, to experiment with innovative ideas and practices.

          To advocate the case that, a certain percentage of the budget for teacher education research and development may be  earmarked.

          To advocate for creation of a separate cadre for teacher education in the state.

          To establish linkage between teacher education and manpower planning,

          To curtail wastage and non-academic expenditure in teacher education and to ensure optimal and profitable utilization of resources available for teacher education,

          To improve the quality of teacher education by making it more functional at all levels and for all stages,

          To provide and use ICT facilities.

          To create colloborative links between agencies for the renewal of curriculum, preparation of syllabus, production of text books and other reading materials teaching aids and media support.

          To promote international collaboration by way of frequent exchange of ideas, personnel, and research findings.


6.4       Strategies


To ensure coordination between various programmes and various agencies of teacher education  a high level task force consisting of representatives of state apex bodies, experts, teacher association, representative teacher educators and university representatives may be constituted in each state for preparing plans of teacher education and evolving an effective machinery for collaboration between school education and teacher education. Such a proposal has been conceived in the shape of state council of teacher education.  The body will prepare an operational road map of programs avoiding duplication and repetitions.  The unproductive and expenditure on non-academic aspects to be curtailed. The decision making process should be speedy. Budgetary provisions for teacher education should be substantially increased and money should be separately earmarked  for research and development. Private institutions, whether aided or self-financing should be brought under state, audit and scrutiny. There is the need for strict manpower planning in teacher education, and to stop its commercialization.


            An effectively managed educational system needs farsighted educational administrators and planners.  Educational administration and planning needs specialized knowledge (and there is shortage of such persons to assist the state in these areas).  It is therefore, advisable that state institutes of educational planning and administration may be setup in each state.


Every change creates new problems for the management as the old mechanisms without modifications cannot meet the requirement of the new changes.  It is true, even in the case of education also.  So the management system including the personnel involved need a new perceptive vision to adjust with the new situations.  Educational changes are part of social change.  Transformation at the both levels should occur simultaneously.  Since the curriculum frame recommends more democratization of the education system, democratic inputs are more necessary in its management for which the training of the present educational managers and administrators is necessary.  There is a need to appoint educational advisors and start institute of educational management in every state.   Education officers need to receive in-service education.  Reconsideration of the management structures at various levels should also receive priority in the light of the changes suggested in this curriculum framework.  The management itself should make constant evaluation of its effectiveness and quality. 


            For a very long time the education of teachers was imprisoned in a single linear model which produced only one type of teachers as there was little difference in their education.  The educational administrators and planners did not think of experimenting with alternative models of teacher preparation.  Recently  certain efforts have been made in this direction by a few states and universities.  Unless the institutions of teacher education address themselves to task-oriented teacher education they would not be able to provide specialized as well as comprehensive programme of teacher education. The nation needs general teachers, subject specialists, experts in management, planning, finance and administration, teachers for counseling  and guidance, physical and aesthetic education etc.  Only multiple, flexible and integrated models can shoulder this responsibility.  The educational administrators and universities therefore, must take initiative in starting alternative models/programmes of teacher education. While developing various models of teacher preparation, the following general objectives need to be kept in mind.


          To produce professionally more competent and performance oriented teachers and teacher educators.

          To make teacher education broad based so as to meet the requirements of specialized areas.

          To prepare teachers and their educators for transacting the curriculum content of integrated subjects.

          To empower teachers and their educators to integrate physical education, yogic education, aesthetic education and education for life skills, value transmission etc. with general education of teachers.

          To meet the requirements of regional specificities within the main stream of teacher education.

          To adopt interdisciplinary approach in the preparation of teachers and teacher educators.

                    To orient the teachers and teacher educators to handle the challenged children in the inclusive environment.


Suggested  Modalities for Implementing Curriculum Framework 2005


            Some of the crucial management tasks would be:

-           To develop a robust Management Information System for teacher education to document institutions, courses and teacher requirements state-wise.  It should also have statistics about untrained teachers on the job,  unemployed trained teachers and subject-wise deficiency and surplus of teachers at elementary, secondary and senior secondary level.

-           To develop 5 year detailed road map to utilize EDUSAT facilities for pre-primary, primary, elementary, secondary, senior secondary teachers so that their subject competence and pedogogical competence could be upgraded.

-           To develop 5 year detailed road map to provide continuing professional support to teacher education at all levels.

-           To secure a dedicated budget for research and development for teacher education.

-           To initiate accreditation of institutions keeping in view process indicators.


            For effectively managing the system and to implement the recommendations of this Curriculum Framework 2005  institutions should be given a time frame.  Professional support should be extended to shift from one system to another. Seminars and workshops etc. may  be organized to clarify various issues. The NCTE may ensure the implementation of the proposed models of teacher education at various levels besides working out the detailed syllabus. Study and resource material may be prepared for clarifying concepts like pedagogical analysis, culture specific pedagogy, ICT and their educational implications.


            Following operational steps, besides others may be considered for smooth implementation of Curriculum Framework 2005.


-           Meeting with Directors of SCERTs/SIE Heads of CTEs/IASEs Deans of Education Faculty of Universities to discuss administrative and academic matters.

-           Development of support materials that may be used by DIETs, CTEs, IASEs in transacting Curriculum Framework 2005 including preparation of audio and video programmes.

-           Networking institutions so that E-learning on some of the aspects of Curriculum Framework 2005 may offered.

-           Organizing regional workshops for key trainers (trainer of trainees) followed by state level workshops.

-           Benchmarking best practics of some institutions and disseminating them among all teacher education institutions both at elementary and secondary level.




Research in Teacher Education


7.1       Introduction


Research and development are mutually supporting concepts. It applies to teacher education also. Large number of researches have been undertaken in this field during the last few decades. (To pass any observation on their quality and relevance is not the purpose here).   More coordinated and intensive research efforts are needed in teacher education. Whereas NCERT and UGC provide funds for all areas in educational research, NCTE may have the provision to fund research projects especially on teacher education.  If this function is to be discharged seriously, NCTE needs to be allocated separate funds for teacher education research support.


Teacher education at the same time both at elementary and secondary levels should ensure that in pre-service programmes newer research methodologies are taught appropriately.  In other words contents of research methodologies should respond to requirement of pre-primary, primary, elementary secondary senior secondary level.  In M.Ed. and M.Phil levels exposure to more sophisticated research methodologies could be provided.  The knowledge base and skills could be upgraded through in-service programmes.


The word “research” methodology should be interpreted liberally.  It should embody action research, survey research, empirical research, phenomenological research, heuristic research, field visits and lab area projects etc.  One of the objectives of research in teacher education could be to make critical analysis of policy initiative, and to offer suggestions that could be used in making new policy formulations.


7.2       The Status of Research in Teacher Education


            During the last five decades a large number of researches, surveys, etc. have been conducted in teacher education. Characteristics of effective teachers, graphic and numerical rating scales in the assessment of efficiency of teachers through self-rating, peer rating and supervisory ratings, the presage-process-product model are thoroughly employed in the identification of the effective teachers. Classroom interactions and transactions, and improvement in achievement and evaluation have also been on the focus. Curriculum evaluation, organizational climate and its impact on teachers performance, the criterion for admission of prospective teachers and administration of education/teacher education have also caught the attention of researchers. But planned and purposive approach has been neglected.  


            The courses of research methodology are weak. They over emphasize certain areas and neglect others. The subjects are taught but with the exception of psychology and sociology of education their methods of study do not attract the attention of teachers. Anthropology, history, philosophy, management, finance, planning and comparative education etc. are completely neglected. There is the need for recasting the whole programme/curriculum of research methodology and use of statistics in it. Statistical jargons are used without understanding their meaning, significance and relevance. The socio-economic level of  development and cultural differences between India and  Anglo Saxon countries from where the tools and techniques are imported are not given due consideration. Research in teacher education demands special ability, aptitude and interest.  However, it has been reduced to a condition for upward mobility of teachers. Many of the researches serve neither the utilitarian purpose nor do they cater to the need of excellence or create additional knowledge  or revise the existing one. Along with dissertation, action research and field studies should also be made a compulsory component of M.Ed/M.A. programme.


            There are important theme based topics of research which need attention of researchers in teacher education/education.  There are new trends and emerging concepts that need to be researched thoroughly.  For illustration, it may be mentioned that “contextualised multiple intelligence”  “emotional intelligence”, spritual intelligence have come recently in educational literature and need to be researched. Further, school culture, organizational culture and leadership style need to be  re-researched in the context of trends like student autonomy, student unrest, cultural plurality and inclusive education. 


            It needs to be stated again that researches in teacher education need to be more rigorous in treatment and more focused on objectives.  Woolliness of thought and diffused coordination have been reported in almost all surveys of Educational Researches in India.  Further, there is a marked dearth of researches in the area of perspective planning.  Researches in perspective planning need to focus more closely on how teacher education plans are formulated, what is the mechanism of their implementation and monitoring.  Perspective plans have their specific significance as they are not merely crystal-ball gazing exercise.  They need professional vision and empirical base-line data.  Research in teacher education should also study closely and critically the relevance-excellence-equity syndrome.


            As research and development go hand in hand, it is necessary that a mechanism be thought of to disseminate research findings to classroom practitioners and educational planners Mechanical dissemination as is presently being done does not serve the purpose.  It needs a specialised skill.   Teacher Educators need to be trained in this skill as a part of research methodology whereby terse, technical and esoteric research language gets transformed into language understood by teachers.



Suggested Themes/Topics of Research


            Some of the important themes, for illustrative purposes are given below.

-           Manpower planning in teacher education.

-           Regional imbalances in teacher education.

-           NGO’s role in Sarve Shikshya Abhiyan.

-           Grading system in education and teacher education.

-           Performance of different institutions of teacher education.

-           Commercialization in teacher education.

-           Improving performance of  teachers/teacher educators.

-           Internship programmes.

-           Integrated disciplinary approach in teaching.

-           Role of teacher association and teacher education association.

-           Peace Education.

-           Evaluation of reading materials including textbooks.

-           Human rights education.

-           Language development and tribal and first generation learners.

-           Absenteeism among teachers: causes and remedies.

-           Rural-Urban disparity in performance of student/teachers. 

-           Social distance among teachers, teaching different subject.

-           Social harmony: role of teacher education

-           Causes of alienation of educated youth/teachers.

-           Regional variations in teacher education.

-           Duration of teacher education.

-           Models of teacher education and their effectiveness.

-           Learning difficulties in school subjects (identification of hard spots)

-           Styles/models of teaching.

-           Indigenous methods of teaching.

-           Academic versus non academic expenditure on Teacher Education/Education.

-           Economics of education.

-           Educational Planning.

-           Educational Finance

-           ICT and its impact on teaching and learning,

-           Centre-state relationship in teacher education.

-           Teacher Education for the disadvantaged, neglected, oppressed and stigmatised children.